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Pharos University In Alexandria Faculty of Mass communication Communication Skills Dr. Enjy Mahmoud Week #:11 Lecture #:10 Fall 2013-2014 By Dr Enjy Mahmoud. General Guidelines. Purpose You need to define your purpose for giving the presentation

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Pharos University In Alexandria Faculty of Mass communication

Communication Skills

Dr. EnjyMahmoud

Week #:11 Lecture #:10

Fall 2013-2014

By Dr EnjyMahmoud

General guidelines
General Guidelines


  • You need to define your purpose for giving the presentation

    • Teach, Persuade, Prove, Review, Impress, Entertain?

    • Who? What? How? When? Where? Why?


  • Always have an outline

  • Tell them what you’re going to tell them, then tell them, then tell them what you told them.


  • An unprepared presenter loses the audience before even starting

  • Practice makes perfect and builds confidence.

  • Arrive early, make sure everything is set up

  • Dress appropriately

  • Slides should be done well in advance


  • Be sure you know how much time you have while preparing the presentation

  • It is better to end early than to go over

    • Always have a watch or clock in view

  • You’ll never have enough time to tell everything so stick to the most important


  • Be sure you know your audience well


The most critical step in preparation is

understanding the purpose

  • Why am I giving this presentation?

  • What do I want the audience know or to do at the end of the presentation?

  • How do I want the audience to feel?

Structure 1 the introduction
Structure1-The Introduction

  • Introduce yourself and the topic indicating how long you are going to speak for Outline your key themes

  • For taking the attention and convincing them to listen to you.

  • Make your audience think that they are going to be informed, entertained or enlightened.

  • Start your speech with power.

  • Say when you would like to take questions (see Q&A section at end)

2 the main body
2-The Main Body

  • Most topics have a logical order, try to link your themes with verbal or visual cues - don’t just jump from one to the next

  • Use narrative – people respond to stories

  • Use anecdotes and examples case history charts and graphs

  • Deliver what you promised in the shortest and most interesting way

  • Keep in mind in structuring your message that

  • Attention cycle &

  • Pacing

  • Use repetition for remembering

3 the conclusion
3-The Conclusion

  • Repeat your main idea or begin with

    “Let’s reviewthe main points we’ve covered”

  • Last opportunity to emphasize main points.

  • Must be strong and persuasive.

  • It is important to have a clear ending - say ‘and now to conclude’. Informing the audience you are near the end means they are likely to give you their full attention as you sum up

  • Summarize key points – tell them what you have just told them

  • Do not add anything new

  • Thank the audience for listening

  • Ask if anyone has questions

  • Include any contact details if appropriate on last slide

In short
In short:

  • Introduction: Say what you are going to say

  • Main body: Say it

  • Conclusion: Say what you’ve said


  • If you have a complicated diagram, give it as a handout at the beginning of the presentation so that the audience can refer to it.

  • Otherwise give out handouts after the presentation - this avoids the audience being distracted by reading instead of listening to you.


  • Avoid reading a script as this can lead to you making the mistake of reading it verbatim – boring! It is best to use notes you can refer to…

  • Keep your notes brief, preferably in point form

  • Index cards are easy to hold in your hand and each one can be placed at the back of the pile when finished with. Make sure you number them

  • Highlight your key ideas so that they stand out – you could lose your train of thought and this would help you recover

  • Likewise, indicate on your notes where you are going to make use of any overheads or other visual aids

The performance
The Performance

  • Remember to move rather than getting glued to one spot

  • Don’t stand between the audience and your PowerPoint

  • Don’t turn your back on the audience to look at the PowerPoint whilst you are speaking. You are using your notes and the audience can read the slides for themselves

  • You are allowed to move your arms but don’t wave them about

  • Maintain eye contact individually if the size of audience permits or by looking at groups if the audience is large. Don’t stare as this can make your audience feel uncomfortable

  • Don’t mumble or apologize

  • Any humor should arise naturally from the subject matter. Try to use anecdotes and examples appropriately

  • Be positive, show energy and enthusiasm for the topic


  • The best way to relieve tension is to prepare thoroughly and practice prior to performance.

  • say out loud what you are going to say to your audience the sense may be altered and the timing will not be the same.

  • Practice in front of a friend or colleague. Take on board their advice. Ask them to look out for any distracting habits