Afghanistan soviet afghan war 1979 88
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Afghanistan (Soviet afghan war) 1979-88. By: Anmol Gupta & Bavika Atputhajeyam . General Overview . Duration 10 years Started on Dec. 27 th , 1979 Afghans ( Mujahideens ) used guerilla warfare to drive the Soviets out Result: stalemate => Soviets forced to withdraw 1988 – Ceasefire

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Afghanistan (Soviet afghan war) 1979-88

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Afghanistan soviet afghan war 1979 88

Afghanistan (Soviet afghan war) 1979-88

By: Anmol Gupta & Bavika Atputhajeyam


General overview

General Overview

  • Duration 10 years

  • Started on Dec. 27th, 1979

  • Afghans (Mujahideens) used guerilla warfare to drive the Soviets out

  • Result: stalemate => Soviets forced to withdraw

  • 1988 – Ceasefire

  • 1989 – Soviets withdrew

  • Ended on Feb. 15th, 1989


Causes

Causes

  • Soviets – expand communism to neighbouring countries

  • Afghanistan – Marxist government was opposed by many Afghans

  • 1978 - Overthrow of Afghan central gov’t and a Marxist gov’t was placed.

  • Rebellion of Mujahideens => Soviets intervention in 1979


Key players

Key players

  • Communists: USSR & Afghan Government

  • Anti-Communists: Mujahideens, US, UK, Pakistan

  • Leaders: US =>President Jimmy Carter (1979-81), President Ronald Reagan (1982 – 88)

  • USSR =>Leonoid Brezhnev (USSR) (1979-82), Yuri Andropov (1982-84), Konstantin Chernenko(1984-85), Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-88)


Motivations goals

Motivations/goals

Soviets

Afghans

  • Geographic benefits: Access of Indian Ocean through India

  • Trade with India

  • Natural resources: iron, natural gas, uranium, copper

  • Goal: Make Afghanistan communist and get rid of the mujahideens

  • Saw Soviets invasion as a threat to their culture and religion – engage in “jihad” (holy war)


Events

Events

  • Taraki Regime in Afghanistan

  • A jihad against communism launches

  • Brezhnev Doctrine: Right of S.U. to militarily get involved to prevent the overthrow of a neighbouring communist government.

  • 1979 – Soviet control over cities

  • 1980-81 - Mujahideen took control of countryside

  • 1982 – war was at a stalemate

  • 1982-83 - Soviets tried to eliminate the opposition by bombing areas


Events cont

Events Cont

  • 1983 – US, UK, Saudi Arabia became supporters of Mujahideens

  • Foreign aid was received from US

  • 1984-88 – Mujahideens gained the upperhand through shipments of weapons such as shoulder fired anti aircraft missiles from US and UK through Pakistan

  • 1985 – Soviets close in on Kabul


Events cont1

Events Cont

  • Early 1989 – US, Pakistan, Afghanistan and S.U. signed an agreement to withdraw Soviet troops and return Afghanistan to peace

  • Soviets, with the leadership of Michael Gorbachev, agreed to withdraw troops within a 10 month period

  • Mujahideen take over Kabul


Us s view on the war

US’s view on the war

  • President Jimmy Carter believed that Soviet’s action was a “blatant violation of accepted international rules of behaviour”

  • Limitied his sales with the USSR

  • Following Carter, President Ronald Reagen despised the Soviets even more and referred to them as the “evil empire”


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