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Afghanistan (Soviet afghan war) 1979-88. By: Anmol Gupta & Bavika Atputhajeyam . General Overview . Duration 10 years Started on Dec. 27 th , 1979 Afghans ( Mujahideens ) used guerilla warfare to drive the Soviets out Result: stalemate => Soviets forced to withdraw 1988 – Ceasefire

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afghanistan soviet afghan war 1979 88

Afghanistan (Soviet afghan war) 1979-88

By: Anmol Gupta & Bavika Atputhajeyam

general overview
General Overview
  • Duration 10 years
  • Started on Dec. 27th, 1979
  • Afghans (Mujahideens) used guerilla warfare to drive the Soviets out
  • Result: stalemate => Soviets forced to withdraw
  • 1988 – Ceasefire
  • 1989 – Soviets withdrew
  • Ended on Feb. 15th, 1989
causes
Causes
  • Soviets – expand communism to neighbouring countries
  • Afghanistan – Marxist government was opposed by many Afghans
  • 1978 - Overthrow of Afghan central gov’t and a Marxist gov’t was placed.
  • Rebellion of Mujahideens => Soviets intervention in 1979
key players
Key players
  • Communists: USSR & Afghan Government
  • Anti-Communists: Mujahideens, US, UK, Pakistan
  • Leaders: US =>President Jimmy Carter (1979-81), President Ronald Reagan (1982 – 88)
  • USSR =>Leonoid Brezhnev (USSR) (1979-82), Yuri Andropov (1982-84), Konstantin Chernenko(1984-85), Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-88)
motivations goals
Motivations/goals

Soviets

Afghans

  • Geographic benefits: Access of Indian Ocean through India
  • Trade with India
  • Natural resources: iron, natural gas, uranium, copper
  • Goal: Make Afghanistan communist and get rid of the mujahideens
  • Saw Soviets invasion as a threat to their culture and religion – engage in “jihad” (holy war)
events
Events
  • Taraki Regime in Afghanistan
  • A jihad against communism launches
  • Brezhnev Doctrine: Right of S.U. to militarily get involved to prevent the overthrow of a neighbouring communist government.
  • 1979 – Soviet control over cities
  • 1980-81 - Mujahideen took control of countryside
  • 1982 – war was at a stalemate
  • 1982-83 - Soviets tried to eliminate the opposition by bombing areas
events cont
Events Cont
  • 1983 – US, UK, Saudi Arabia became supporters of Mujahideens
  • Foreign aid was received from US
  • 1984-88 – Mujahideens gained the upperhand through shipments of weapons such as shoulder fired anti aircraft missiles from US and UK through Pakistan
  • 1985 – Soviets close in on Kabul
events cont1
Events Cont
  • Early 1989 – US, Pakistan, Afghanistan and S.U. signed an agreement to withdraw Soviet troops and return Afghanistan to peace
  • Soviets, with the leadership of Michael Gorbachev, agreed to withdraw troops within a 10 month period
  • Mujahideen take over Kabul
us s view on the war
US’s view on the war
  • President Jimmy Carter believed that Soviet’s action was a “blatant violation of accepted international rules of behaviour”
  • Limitied his sales with the USSR
  • Following Carter, President Ronald Reagen despised the Soviets even more and referred to them as the “evil empire”
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