Phonology more on allophones and phonemes
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Phonology: More on allophones and phonemes. LING 400 Winter 2010. Overview. Review of phonology Data sets Mohawk stops Russian velar stops. Please turn off your cell phone. Phonemic vs. phonetic representations. Phonetic representation directly observable

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Phonology more on allophones and phonemes

Phonology:More on allophones and phonemes

LING 400

Winter 2010


Overview

Overview

  • Review of phonology

  • Data sets

    • Mohawk stops

    • Russian velar stops

Please turn off your cell phone


Phonemic vs phonetic representations

Phonemic vs. phonetic representations

  • Phonetic representation

    • directly observable

    • contains measurable properties

  • Phonemic representation

    • inferred, not observed

    • abstract, streamlined representation of sound

  • Levels related by phonological rules


Inferring the phonemic representation

Inferring the phonemic representation

  • Minimal pairs/sets

    • sounds in contrast

  • Complementary distribution

    • sounds not in contrast


Minimal pair

Minimal pair

  • Two words differing in meaning and only one phonetic property

    • A minimal pair for voicing in English

      • [|kɹæbi] crabby vs. [|kɹæpi] crappy

      • therefore, /p b/ in English

  • Phonetic difference between pair not due to context

  • Minimal pairs contain phonemes


Near minimal pairs sets

Near-minimal pairs/sets

  • Sometimes not many minimal pairs

    • [θ], [ð]: [θɑɪ] thigh, [ðɑɪ] thy; ether, either

  • Sometimes minimal pairs lacking

    • [ʃ], [ʒ]

      • none word initially

      • word medially: [ə|luʃən] Aleutian, [ɪ|luʒən]~[ə|luʒən] illusion

  • Rule for inferring phonemes from near-minimal pairs

    • sounds must be in “same environment” or close to it

    • [phɑɪ], [spɑɪ] not a minimal pair for aspiration in English ([p], [ph] not in same environment)


Complementary distribution of sounds

Complementary distribution of sounds

  • Predictable aspects of pronunciation can be due to

    • Influence of neighboring sound

    • Position within word


Mohawk

Mohawk

  • Iroquoian family; spoken in Quebec, Ontario, and New York

map from www.ssila.org


Mohawk stops

Mohawk stops

  • Observation: [p t k b d g] are all sounds of Mohawk

  • Suspicion: there are no minimal or near-minimal pairs for voicing

  • Question: Is stop voicing phonemic or predictable?


Mohawk phonetic data

Mohawk phonetic data

of interest: [p t k b d g]

[V:] = long vowel, [C̥] = voiceless consonant


Finding patterns in a mass of data

Finding patterns in a mass of data

  • Often useful to

    • rearrange the data

      • [p t k] vs. [b d g]

    • simplify the data

      • list immediately preceding, following sound/position

  • Then look for

    • natural classes of sounds, those sharing some property not shared by other sounds, to right or left

    • or unique position


Mohawk stop distribution

Mohawk stop distribution

# = word edge

  • Any natural classes?

  • [ɑ], [e], [o], [i], [s]

  • [l], #, [s], [w̥]

  • [ɑ], [i:], [o], [e], [h], [ɑ:], #

  • [ɑ], [e], [u:], [e:], [ɑ:]


Summarized contexts

Summarized contexts

  • [p t k] and [b d g] are in complementary distribution in Mohawk.

  • Notice: what precedes doesn’t matter


Writing a phonological rule

Writing a phonological rule

  • Which rule?

    • Mohawk has /p t k/ and Voicing rule (stops are voiced before vowels).or?

    • Mohawk has /b d g/ and Devoicing rule (stops are voiceless word finally or before a consonant).


Choose voicing

Choose Voicing

  • Voicing simpler than Devoicing

    • Voicing: “...before vowels.”

    • Devoicing: “...word finally or before a consonant.”


Final analysis

Final analysis

  • In Mohawk,

  • Stops are voiced before vowels, and voiceless elsewhere. (sentence formulation of rule)

    • /p t k/  [b d g] / ___ V

    • (  [p t k] / …)

    • (‘arrow’ formulation of rule)

… = elsewhere


Natural classes

Natural classes


Summary

Summary

  • Determining phonemes

    • Minimal pairs and near-minimal pairs

    • Complementary distribution of sounds

  • Keys to being able to do so

    • Understanding value of phonetic symbols

    • Recognizing natural classes


Question

Question

  • Turn in a broad phonetic (or phonemic) transcription of your first and last names

    • Transcribe primary stress (if appropriate)

    • Transcribe [ə] and [ɾ], if either of your names contains these sounds


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