Mexican Americans. Bracero Program: 1945 – 1964 Operation Wetback (1954) – find & deport illegal immigrants Supreme Court ruled that exclusion of Hispanics from juries violated the Constitutional guarantee of equal protection. Civil Rights. Zinn page 449 – 457
The black revolt of the 1950s and 1960s-North and South-came as a surprise. But perhaps it should not have. The memory of oppressed people is one thing that cannot be taken away, and for such people, with such memories, revolt is always an inch below the surface. For blacks in the United States, there was the memory of slavery, and after that of segregation, lynching, humiliation. And it was not just a memory but a living presence-part of the daily lives of blacks in generation after generation.
-Zinn CH 17
In the 1930s, Langston Hughes wrote a poem, "Lenox Avenue Mural":
What happens to a dream deferred?
Does it dry up
like a raisin in the sun?
Or fester like a sore-
And then run?
Does it stink like rotten meat?
Or crust and sugar over-
like a syrupy sweet?
Maybe it just sags like a heavy load.
Or does it explode?
What is the dream deferred?
What happens when a dream is deferred?
Ruby Bridges inspired the 1964 Norman Rockwell painting "The Problem We All Live With": On November 14, 1960, the nation watched as six-year-old Ruby Nell Bridges walked into William Frantz Elementary School and into history. A federal court ordered the New Orleans school system to desegregate, making Bridges the first African-American to attend the elementary school.