Heart Rate Lab:. In this lab which factor was the:IV: body activity (causes)DV: pulse rate (effect)Control: sitting, standing, running. Paper chromatography. Describe the process of Chromatography chemical is put on leave
1. EOC-LAB REVIEW Using your lab write-ups, fill in the information for each lab that we have completed this semester. Specific information is requested for each lab because it will be featured on your EOC.
2. Heart Rate Lab: In this lab which factor was the:
IV: body activity (causes)
DV: pulse rate (effect)
Control: sitting, standing, running
3. Paper chromatography Describe the process of Chromatography chemical is put on leave & pigments separate.
4. pH of Household chemicals Draw the Ph scale:
What ions make something acidic? Give some ex: H+ lemon juice
What ions make something basic? Give some ex: OH- detergent
5. Testing Organic Compounds What reagent do we use to test for sugars & describe a positive test.
What reagent to we use to test for starch & describe a positive test.
6. Testing Organic Compounds What reagent to we use to test for lipids & describe a positive test.
Paper towel; translucent spot
What reagent to we use to test for proteins & describe a positive test.
What is needed to make organic compounds? C, H
7. Carbohydrate Paper Lab What elements make up all carbohydrates? C,H,O
What ratio are the elements in carbohydrates found in? How does that ratio compare to the ratio in water? 2:1, same in water
8. Chemical bonds are formed between atoms, what is the purpose of chemical bonds? To hold atoms together
What does the word carbohydrate mean? Sugar, or starch
9. What are three monosaccharides & what is their formula?
Glucose, fructose, galatactose,C6H12O6
What are your three dissacharides & what is their formula?
Maltose, sucrose, lactose, C12H220O11
What are three polysaccharides that we talked about in class & their functions?
Starch (storage for plants)
Cellulose(cell walls of plants), chitin (fungi)
Glycogen (storage for animals)
13. Chemistry of Lipids Fats & Protein What are the building blocks of lipids? Glycerol, fatty acids (3)
What are the building blocks of Proteins? Amino acids
14. Organic Compound Table What are the building blocks of:
Proteins- amino aids
Nucleic Acids- nucleotides
15. Reusable Enzyme Lab What was the enzyme in the lab & how did you know?
Peroxidase, it broke down liver
What was the substrate in the lab & how did you know?
Peroxide, it was broken down
Why did the test tube feel warm during the reaction?
The enzyme was breaking down
16. What factors could effect enzyme activity?
What pH range would an enzyme that is found in acidic environments (like your stomach) work best? 2-3
17. Enzyme Temperature Lab What effect does temperature have an enzyme activity?
It slows it down or speed it up
Why does hydrogen peroxide bubble when it touches the beef liver?
It’s the enzyme
Why does hydrogen peroxide bubble when it touches your skin?
It is breaking down
18. What were the bubbles produced in this lab? O2
What were the products of this enzymatic reaction? CO2
19. What is the relationship between enzyme activity & temperature?
The higher the enzyme until after max range the better.
Describe the reaction that occurred with the enzyme placed into the hot water?
It had slow or no reaction.
20. Enzyme Paper Lab What type or organic compound is an enzyme?
What is the function of an enzyme?
To break down
How are enzymes recognized?
Water is taken away bubbles
What compound would the enzyme lactase breakdown?
22. What happens to enzymes after they finish reacting?
Waits for more
Compare dehydration & hydrolysis reactions?
Dehydration takes H20, Hydrolysis adds water
23. Draw & label 2 Enzyme-Substrate Complex models (one illustrating Dehydration reactions & one illustrating hydrolysis)
27. Compound Light Microscope What are the major differences between bacterial cell (prokaryote) & blood (eukaryote)?
Prokaryote has no nucleus
What 4 organelles can be found on both types of cells?
Cell membrane, ribosome, cell wall, cytoplasm
29. Elodea & Cheek Cells: Comparing plant & animal cells What organelles do you see in the elodea cells that let you now it’s a plant cell?
What organelle is needed for photosynthesis and phototactic responses?
30. What organelles would be found in both plant & animal cells & provides evidence for the endosymbiont theory? Why?
Mitochondria has its own DNA
Why must we stain the cheek cells with Methylene Blue?
To notice the nucleus
32. Semi-permeable Membrane (iodine) Which substance was able to diffuse across the semi-permeable across the membrane?
How were you able to tell the substance that was permeable across the membrane?
It showed up in the bag
What cell structure was represented by the sandwich bag?
33. Plasmolyzed Cell Lab What type of solution causes plasmolysis to occur in cells? Salt water
Which way did the water move when salt was added to the elodea? Out
34. What would happen to a cell placed into each of the following environments?
35. While observing the green plant Elodea, what were the disc-shaped organelles that you observed
37. Effects of Salt on potato Describe the texture of the potato soaked in salt water.
What could account for this observation?
All the water left
What type solution was the salt water solution.
38. Diffusion across the membrane What part of vinegar dissolved the shell of the egg?
Did water move into or out of the egg soaked in vinegar? In
40. Which beaker represented of the following?
a. isotonic solution
c. hypotonic Diffusion Across Membrane (dialysis tubing)
41. Did the movement of the particles in this investigation represent passive or active transport?
What process would move particles against the concentration gradient?
43. Cell Energy ATP Models What does the cell do with the energy that is released in ATP breakdown?
Use it for cell functions
What process converts glucose into ATP?
44. Photosynthesis Labs Plant Pigments
What is a valid conclusion that can be concluded from this lab?
That leaves have pigments
What is the name of this technique?
46. Structure of a leaf
What are the openings of the leaf called? How are they regulated?
Stromata, guard cells
What gas leaves and enters through the stomata of a leaf and is later used in photosynthesis?
47. What is the major food manufacturer in a leaf?
What is the function of the cuticle?
To protect the leaf
48. What is in a leaf?
How does a leaf store food?
50. Uptake of CO2 During Photosynthesis
Why was Bromothymol blue used?
To test for CO2
What are the raw materials used in photosynthesis? CO2, H2O
51. In this photosynthesis experiment, using Elodea, what products were expected to be produced?
What organelle in the Elodea is responsible for making food?
What is the relationship between plants and animals?
Animals eat plants, Plants give CO2 & Animals give O2
52. In this experiment how does Bromothymol Blue prove that photosynthesis occurs?
Changes from blue to yellow in the presence of CO2 then when plant gave off O2 it changed to blue again
It took CO2 & used it
Write an equation that represents the process?
6CO2+6H2O light C6 H12 O6 +6O2
53. Apple Juice Fermentation What is occurring in the pipette?
Yeast is using CO2
What evidence do we have to show that it is occurring?
54. In this experiment, was this process an example of aerobic or anaerobic respiration? Explain
Aerobic, no use of oxygen
What organelle in the yeast cells carry out the process?
Write the equation that represents this process.
55. Photosynthesis & Respiration (table) What is the major difference between aerobic & anaerobic respiration?
Aerobic uses of oxygen
How would tetanus, a bacteria that lives deep in puncture wounds receive their energy?
Lactic acid fermentation
57. Mitosis (Analysis) What is the result of uncontrolled mitosis?
What environmental factors (external factors) is responsible for most cancers?
What type of cancer is caused mostly by external environmental factors?
59. Blood Typing What are the 4 blood types?
A, B, AB, O
What are the alleles for the blood types?
Who is the universal donor?
60. How do blood types differ?
If dad has a blood type of A & mom has O, & all of the children are A, What is dads genotype?
62. Karyotype What technique was used to obtain the chromosomes needed to create your karyotype?
What type of information can be obtained from amniocentesis?
63. If a female is missing a X chromosome, how would it be written?
What condition is characterized by trisomy 21?
What is nondisjunction?
Failure of chromosome to separate “not coming apart”
In what stage of Meiosis is most likely to occur?
64. Didn’t do~Mystery of Crooked Cell How did the patients blood differ from normal blood?
Hemoglobin is lined up
65. How is the RBC shape altered by the patients hemoglobin? Straight
What is hemoglobin? Carries oxygen in the blood cells.
67. What is the most likely cause of the speciation that occurred among primates?
They changed for environments; isolation
What type of evidence does similarities in proteins such as cytochome C provide?
They come from common ancestors
What type of evidence does similarities in primate skulls provide?
They came from common ancestors
68. Lab Practicum: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, & Fungi Why are fungi such important organisms on earth?
69. What kingdom does most of the single-celled organisms that move by cilia, flagella, and pseudopods belong to?
70. What are some diseases caused by viruses?
Food poison, Strep throat, chicken pox, common cold, hepatitis B, influenza, smallpox, polio, measles,
71. What is the treatment for these viruses?
72. Describe the shape of the following types of bacteria.
A. Staphylo coccus
B. Staphylo sprillus
C. Strepto cocctus
D. Strepto bacillus
Name the pioneer species that is a mutualistic relationship between an algae and fungus. Lichin
73. Lab Practicum Kingdom Plantae What division of vascular plants do flowers belong? Angio sperm
74. What are nonvascular plants and give 2 examples?
Have no true roots, no xylem nor phloem
75. What is the advantage of needle-like (conifers) in the taiga (cold regions)?
76. Complete the following analogy:
Fruit: Angiosperm as
What is the main purpose of the flower part of the plant?
77. How are plants & fungi different?
Plants are autotrophic
Fungi produce spores not seeds
Similar only to the naked eye
78. What two types of vascular tissues are found in most plants? What is the overall function of these tissues?
Xylem, phloem transportation
79. The corn is a monocot angiosperm. What is the purpose of the endosperm of the corn seed?
80. What evolutionary adaptation has allowed plants to survive & be successful on land?
82. Lab Practicum: Kingdom Animalia What Phylum does organisms with an exoskeleton, segmented body, bilateral symmetry, & jointed appendages belong to?
83. What structure in the fish (gas exchange) would be analogous to the human lung?
84. What adaptation has allowed reptiles to be successful on land?
85. What classes of Vertebrated are ectothermic (cold-blooded)?
Fishes, amphibians, reptiles
Endothermic (warm-blooded) some reptiles, some amphibians, mammals & birds
86. Many organisms use chemicals to lead to food sources, mark territory, & attract mates.
What are these chemicals called?
87. What chemicals regulate growth and development in both plants & animals?
What type of fertilization and development occurs in most mammals?
88. What structure in the earthworm is used for excretion (get rid of waste)?
89. The larvae of the beetle & the earthworm look & behave very similarly. Why would they be classified in different phyla?
Beetles undergo metamorphosis
91. The Anopheles mosquito carries the protozoan Plasmodium. What human disease is caused by this protists?
Which organism is the host?
Which organism is the Vector?