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Classification. Taxonomy: the science of classification. Why do we classify organisms?. 1. Why Classify? To study the diversity of life To group organisms according to shared lines of evolutionary descent 2. Why are organisms given scientific names? Common names are misleading.

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Classification

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Classification

Taxonomy: the science of classification


Why do we classify organisms?

  • 1. Why Classify?

    • To study the diversity of life

    • To group organisms according to shared lines of evolutionary descent

      2. Why are organisms given scientific names?

    • Common names are misleading

silverfish

star fish

jellyfish

None of these animals are fish!


Why Scientists Assign Scientific Names to Organisms?

  • Some organisms have several common names

  • This cat is commonly known as:

    • Florida panther

    • Mountain lion

    • Puma

    • Cougar

Scientific name: Felisconcolor

Scientific name means “coat of one color”


  • A frog species that appears to be the world's smallest has been discovered in Papua New Guinea by a US-based team.

  • The smallest vertebrates have, until now, been fish.


Binomial Nomenclature

  • Linnaeus developed the system, called Binomial Nomenclature, allowing scientists to give each organisms a universally accepted two-part name.

  • The first part of the name is the Genus. The second part of the name is the Species.

  • EX – “Homo sapiens” thinking man/ wise

    “Homo” is the Genus, “sapiens” is the species.


The 5 Rules of Nomenclature:

  • The Genus is a noun and is capitalized

  • The species is an adjective and is lowercase

  • If writing by hand underline each word separately

  • If typing the name italicize it

  • If used repeatedly first write it fully out, then you can abbreviate the Genus

    (Ex. H. sapiens)


  • Linnaeus’s System is Hierarchical

Kingdom

Most General

  • Which of the following contains all of the others?

    • Familyc. Class

    • Species d. Order

  • Based on their names, you know that the baboons Papio annubis and Papio cynocephalus do not belong to the same:

    • Familyc. Order

    • Genusd. Species

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Most specific

King Philip came over for good sweets!

Species


Hierarchical Ordering of Classification

Coral snake

Abert squirrel

Sea star

Grizzly bear

Black bear

Giant panda

Red fox

KINGDOM Animalia

As we move from the kingdom level to the species level, more and more members are excluded – species is least inclusive!

PHYLUM Chordata

CLASS Mammalia

ORDER Carnivora

FAMILY Ursidae

GENUS Ursus

SPECIES Ursus arctos


Phylogeny - Study of evolutionary relationships among organisms.

The root of the tree represents the ancestral lineage, and the tips of the branches represent the descendents of that ancestor. As you move from the root to the tips, you are moving forward in time.

When a lineage splits (speciation), it is represented as branching on a phylogeny. When a speciation event occurs, a single ancestral lineage gives rise to two or more daughter lineages.


Cladogram

  • Diagram used to show the evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms.


Dichotomous Keys

  • A tool for identifying unknown organisms using a key consisting of paired questions based on observable characteristics.

  • Steps:

    • Always begin at the top

    • Answer the paired questions with yes or no

    • Based on your answer follow the directions given by the key


Here's an example in written form using these items:

Here's an example in written form using these items:

  • 1. a. Organism is living........................................................go to 4.

  • 1. b. Organism is nonliving..................................................go to 2.

  • 2. a. Object is metallic........................................................go to 3.

  • 2. b. Object is nonmetallic..................................................ROCK.

  • 3. a. Object has wheels......................................................BICYCLE.

  • 3. b. Object does not have wheels......................................TIN CAN.

  • 4. a. Organism is microscopic...................................PARAMECIUM.

  • 4. b. Organism is macroscopic............................................go to 5.

  • This is a dichotomous key using the following: pine tree, tin can, Paramecium, bicycle


6 kingdoms


Considerations:

  • Cell type: prokaryote or eukaryote?

  • Cell structure: cell wall structure? specialized organelles?

  • Number of cells: unicellular or multicellular?

  • Nutrition: autotroph or heterotroph?

  • Reproduction: asexual , sexual, replication


Vocabulary to remember

  • Prokaryote: lacks a nucleus

  • Eukaryote: contains a nucleus

  • Unicellular: contains one cell only

  • Multicellular: contains two or more cells

  • Autotroph: makes its own food

  • Heterotroph: must consume food


Cell Wall

  • Cell structure that surrounds a cell

  • Purpose: protection and support

  • Composed of chitin, cellulose, peptidoglycan, silica, and/or proteins (varies among organisms)


Viruses - nonliving

  • Cell Type: none bc not a cell

  • Cell wall: not a cell just a capsid (protein coat)

  • Body Type: noncellular

  • Nutrition: N/A

  • Reproduction: Replication requiring a host cell

  • Examples: influenza and HIV


Reproduction of Viruses

  • Cannot reproduce alone

  • Can reproduce ONLY inside a living host cell

    • Must use a host cell

    • Like a parasite


Lytic vs. Lysogenic Infection

  • Lytic Infection – virus enters a cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst.

    • Host cell is lysedand destroyed.


Lytic Infection

1. Virus attaches

2. Virus injects genetic information into host

3. New viral proteins and genetic material are made

4. Viral parts are assembled

5. New viruses are released as host cell lyses (bursts) and is destroyed.


  • Lysogenic Infections – A virus integrates its DNA into the DNA of the host cell, and the viral genetic information replicates along with the host cell’s DNA.


Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles of Reproduction


How are bacteria classified?

(1) Shape

(2) type of cell wall

(3) how they use energy


Cell Shape

Bacteria that are spherical shaped are called coccus (cocci)

Bacteria that are rodlike are called bacillus (bacilli)

Bacteria that are spiral shaped are called spirilli


Identifying the type of cell wall using a technique known as Gramstainingis important for diagnostic and treatment purposes.

a. Gram positiveabsorbs the dye and look purple

  • These bacteria have a single cell wall layer made of peptidoglycan. (strep/staph)

    b.Gram negativerepels the dye (has a capsule) and look pink

  • Gram negative bacteria are usually more resistant to antibiotics (like penicillin) and cause more severe infections.(menengitis/gonorrhorea)

Cell membrane

Peptidoglycan

Peptidoglycan

2 membranes

(lipid layers)


How They Use Energy

  • Bacteria have various relationships with oxygen. Some require it to live, others die if exposed to it.

    • Obligate aerobes- these bacteria require oxygen to undergo metabolism, just like humans. (ex. Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

    • Obligate anaerobes- these bacteria must live in the absence of oxygen, or die if exposed to it. (Ex. Clostridium botulinum - causes food poisoning and grows in canned goods not properly sterilized)

    • Facultative anaerobes- are able to function in different ways depending on their environment. They do not require oxygen to survive, but are not killed by its presence. They can live just about anywhere. (ex. E. coli - lives anaerobically in intestines and aerobically in sewage or contaminated water)


Movement of Bacterial Cells

  • Some bacteria contain pili

    • extensions of the plasma membrane help bacteria stick to surfaces

  • Bacteria contain flagella

    • enable bacterial cells to move


Kingdom Archaebacteria: Live in Extreme Habitats

Bacillus infernus lives in deep sea vents in the ocean – obtains energy from Earth’s heat


Slide # 9

Kingdom Archaebacteria

HOT

Salty

Colonies of halophiles form a purple-red scum in these salt collection ponds of the Dead Sea

Colorful thermophiles grow in this hot spring.

Grand Prismatic Spring,

Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming Adam Jones


Kingdom Eubacteria

E-coli bacteria (yellow) on the head of a needle.

Streptococcus

:


Bacteria

  • Bacteria are helpful and harmful organisms

    • Helpful:

      • Cheese, pickles, yogurt, and vinegar are produced as the results of metabolism by certain bacteria

      • Clean up oil spills

      • Aids in human digestion (E. coli) and other life processes

      • Carry out photosynthesis

      • Decomposers (recycle nutrients)

      • Fix Nitrogen (bacteria live on plant roots & turn nitrogen in air into forms that plants can use to make proteins)

    • Harmful:

      • Some bacteria cause disease (~½ of all human diseases are caused by bacteria)

      • Pathogen – Disease causing agent


Diseases Caused by Bacteria

  • Dental Plaque (film destroys tooth enamel)

  • Strep Throat

  • Pneumonia

  • Diphtheria (causes a false membrane to form in the respiratory system which blocks air passages)

  • Acne


Bacterial Growth

  • Bacterial growth can be slowed by cold temperatures.

  • Bacteria can be killed by:

    • Heat/ high temperatures

    • chemicals like

      • Bleach

      • Disinfectants

      • Alcohol

      • Antibiotics (medicines that kill bacteria)


Bacteria are everywhere!

On all surfaces, in liquids, in air, etc

Thankfully most are harmless!


DOMAIN: EUKARYA

Protista Kingdom

  • Cell Type: Eukaryotic

  • Cell wall: Cellulose (some)

  • Body Type: Unicellular and Multicellular

  • Nutrition: Autotrophic, Heterotrophic, Decomposers

  • Are Mobile (can move around)

  • Examples: paramecium, euglena,

    algae


How ProtistsMove!!

  • Flagella- long, whiplike projections that allow a cell to move.

  • Cilia- short hair-like projections similar to flagella

  • Pseudopod- a temporary bulge of the cell membrane that fills with cytoplasm, means false foot.


Protists are either…

  • Animal-Like (Heterotrophic)

    • Classified by their movement

  • Plant-Like (Autotrophic)

    • Classified by their means of obtaining food

  • Fungus-Like (Decomposers)

    • Classified if they lack chitin in cell walls


Diseases associated with animal-like protists

  • Malaria

    • Infected mosquito bites a human, its saliva contains sporozites which enters the blood stream , the sporozites (Plasmodium=no movement= parasitic) infects liver cells, cells burst releasing parasites into bloodstream

    • Causes severe chills and fever


  • African Sleeping Sickness

    • Transmitted by the tsetse fly

    • Causes fever, severe swelling of lymph nodes, causes insomnia, fatigue after parasite passes blood/brain barrier

    • Zooflagellate (flagella movement)


  • Amebic dysentery

    • an amoeba (sarcodine = pseudopod movement) forms infective cysts in stool


Plant-Like Protists

  • Red

    • Brown

  • Green

    • Unicellular & Multicellular Algae:

      • Euglenophyte

      • Diatoms

    Makes agar

    - Dinoflagellates

    Makes food:

    ice cream

    Spirogyra


    RED TIDE – caused by dinoflagellates

    Texas gulf red tide – kills fish; latest affect on oyster harvesting


    Fungus-Like Protists

    • Cellular slime mold Water Mold

    Called Fungus-like because they are heterotrophic and absorb nutrients from dead organic matter in a way similar to Fungi and lack chitin in their cell walls.

    * Acellular slime mold


    The Great Potato Famine

    • In 1846 in Ireland, a water mold (oomycete) attacked the potato crop by destroying ALL parts of the potato making it a spongy sac of dust and spores.

    • 1 million Irish ppl died of starvation/disease within 6 years!


    Fungi Kingdom

    • Cell Type: Eukaryotic

    • Cell wall contains Chitin

    • Body Type: Unicellular and Multicellular

    • Nutrition: Heterotrophic (digestive enzymes )

    • Are Immobile (cannot move round)

    • Examples: yeast, morel, earthstar puffball, bread mold (rhizophusstolonifer), mushrooms


    Grasshopper infected by a fungus

    • Once the spores enter the insect's body, they multiply rapidly and digest body tissues

    • Where are the fruiting bodies?

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuKjBIBBAL8


    Harmful Effects of Fungi


    1. Plant Diseases From Fungi

    • Corn Smut- destroys corn kernels

    • Mildews- infect a variety of fruits

    • Factors that increase fungal growth = High Humidity

    Examples of fungal diseases of plants: Wheat Rust (left), ergots on rye (right)

    Corn Smut


    2. Fungi will spoil food.

    Rhizopus - common bread mold


    3. Fungi cause Human Diseases:

    • Athlete's Foot

    • Ring Worm

      • (NOT A WORM AT ALL!)

    • -Yeast Infections


    Helpful effects for Humans

    Penicillin

    Bacteria Free Zone

    Bacteria Smear

    * Penicillin mold produces an antibiotic that destroys bacterial cell walls.


    Helpful to Humans

    2. Some are edible: some mushroom caps, morels, and truffles

    Pigs are used to smell out truffles


    Helpful to Humans

    Bleu Cheese

    • 3. Used in food production:

      • Cheeses such as Brie, Bleu cheese,

      • Camembert, & Roquefort

      • Bread, Beer, & Wine (Yeast – only unicellular fungus)

      • Soy sauce

      • Tofu

    Bread


    Fungi are also helpfulto the Environment!


    1. Fungi are decomposers,

    recycling organic matter.


    2. Lichen – has a symbiotic relationship (mutualistic) Fungus + Algae. - Fungus gets food from the algae -The algae get water and minerals from fungus


    3. Mycorrhizae – a symbiotic relationship (mutualistic) Fungus + Plant roots. Fungal hyphae extend into the soil and root, helping the plant absorb nutrients. Plant provides the fungi with the products of photosynthesis

    The last 2 roots on the far right do not have mycorrhizae.

    Plant roots covered with fungal hyphae which increases surface area for absorption.


    Plantae Kingdom

    • Cell Type: Eukaryotic

    • Cell wall contains Cellulose

    • Body Type: Multicellular

    • Nutrition: Autotrophic

    • Examples: corn, ferns, roses, pine tree


    Animalia Kingdom

    • Cell Type: Eukaryotic

    • Cell Wall: No Cell Wall

    • Body Type: Multicellular

    • Nutrition: Heterotrophic

    • Examples: invertebrates(worms, insects) and chordates(humans, dogs, sharks, fish,snakes)


    Invertebrate video….

    http://www.ted.com/talks/view/id/206


    Body Symmetry

    Bilateral Symmetry – one plane of symmetry; definite right and left sides

    Asymmetry

    no front or back; no right or left side

    Radial Symmetry body parts repeat around the center


    Body Plans:

    Coelom – a fluid-filled body cavity that is lined with tissue derived from mesoderm.

    • Acoelomate – animal lacking a “coelom” or body cavity.

      OR

    • Coelomate – animal with a “coelom” or body cavity.


    Invertebrates - Animals with no backbone or vertebral column

    Sponges: asymmetry & acoelomate

    • Worms: bilateral

    • Flatworms (acoelomate)

    • Roundworms (psuedocoelom)

    • Segmented

    • (true coelom)

    Cnidaria(jellyfish/coral/anemones): radial & acoelomate


    These sea anemones are feeding on a jellyfish.


    Lion’s mane jellyfish

    Purple jellyfish


    Roundworms

    Elephantiasis caused by filarial worm in lymph nodes

    African Guinea Worm

    Many roundworms such as filarial worms, hookworms, and ascaris are parasitic and cause human diseases.


    http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=A5FABC2E-807C-4804-9078-506E818A5E07&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US (insects) 1:14

    Invertebrates - Animals with no backbone or vertebral column

    • Arthropods: bilateral

    • Crustaceans (2 body segments)

    • Spiders & relatives (2 body segments)

    • Insects & relatives

    • (3 body segments)

    • Mollusks: bilateral & true coelom

    • Gastropods – no shell single shell (slug/snail)

    • Bivalves – two shells (clam/oyster)

    • Cephalopods – head attached to single “foot” which divides into tentacles (octopus/squid)

    Echinoderms(starfish/ sand dollar/sea urchin): radial & coelom & acoelomate


    Introduction

    Four structural characteristics set chordates apart from all other phyla:

    a hollow dorsal nerve cord

    a notochord (provides support (it acts like our backbone) and increases swimming efficiency)

    a pharyngeal gill slits (respiratory structures)

    postanal tail (follow the anus with a tail of variable length -again, an adaptation for locomotion).

    These attributes are always found in the larval forms or early embryo (although they may be absent in the adult).


    Important Vocab.

    • Animals maintain/control their body temperature one of two ways:

      • Ectotherm – animals that rely on behavior and interactions with the environment

      • Endotherm – animals that generate their own body heat and control temp. from within


    http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=5A1EACD2-3483-41F0-86B1-47B8300065E0&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US (fish intro)

    Vertebrates

    Class Agnathans(jawless fish)

    • Examples: lamprey, hagfish

    • Skeleton Type: fibers and cartilage

    • F - 2 chambered

    • Temperature control: ectotherm

    • Respiration: gills

      Class Chondrichthyes(cartilaginous fish)

    • Examples: sharks, skates, rays

    • Skeleton Type: cartilage

    • F - 2 chambered

    • Temperature control:ectotherm

    • Respiration: gills

      Class Osteictheys(bony fish)

    • Examples: goldfish, perch, bass, trout

    • Skeleton Type: hard, calcified tissue=bone

    • F - 2 chambered

    • Temperature control: ectotherm

    • Respiration: gills

    http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=5A1EACD2-3483-41F0-86B1-47B8300065E0&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US

    (mudskippers)

    Leafy Sea dragon


    Chimaeras are known as ghost sharks because they live between 660 ft and 8,500 ft below the ocean floor!

    A shark goes through 20,000 teeth in its lifetime!!

    A skate is shown in the top picture with a stingray below


    Class Amphibia = “double life”

    • Examples: frogs, newts, salamander

    • The ancestors of today's amphibians were the first chordates to venture onto land

    • Two barriers, however, keep most amphibians from a totally terrestrial lifestyle: respiration and reproduction

    • F - 3 chambered (2 atria/1 ventricle)

    • Temperature control: ectotherm\

    • Respiration: young=gills/skin

      adult=lungs

    Examples: frogs, newts, salamander

    http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=9AF59819-F781-462B-822B-8FDA4BEB534D&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US (life intro)

    http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=9AF59819-F781-462B-822B-8FDA4BEB534D&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US (pebble frog)


    Class Reptilia

    • Examples: snakes, lizards, iguanas

    • F - 3 chambered except crocodiles with 4 chambered

    • Temperature control:

      ectotherm

    • Respiration: lungs

    http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=9AF59819-F781-462B-822B-8FDA4BEB534D&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US (Basilisk Lizard)


    Green Sea Turtles in Tortuguero


    Snakes are carnivorous and stretch their jaws to consume their prey whole.

    The sex of a crocodile is determined by temperature during wk 2-3 of the 2 mo. incubation, with females produced at 82-86 F, and males produced at 90 F and 93 F.

    (Opp. for turtles)


    Class Aves (birds)

    http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=B00AB5CE-AF5C-4EAA-92D5-EA986AE921DE&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US (intro)

    • Examples: chickens, penguins, cardinals, ostrich

    • F - 4 chambered

    • Temperature control:

      endotherm(warm-blooded)

    • Respiration: lungs

    Hollow bones for flight


    Class Mammalia

    http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=FCBB2C21-7A81-487C-9431-953269F3736F&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US (intro)

    • Examples: cats, whales, gorillas, zebras, humans

    • F - 4 chambered (2 atria/2 ventricle)

    • Temperature control:

      endotherm(warm-blooded)

    • Respiration: lungs

    http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=FCBB2C21-7A81-487C-9431-953269F3736F&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US (meerkat)


    Mammalia Reproduction Diversity

    • Monotreme– “egg-laying mammal”; like reptiles except after eggs hatch the young is nourished by mother’s milk

      • Only 3 species exist: duckbill platypus, 2 spiny anteaters

    • Marsupial – bear live young that complete their development in an external pouch

      • Kangaroos, koalas, wombats

    • Placental – nutrients, O2, CO2, wastes are exchanged b/n embryo and mother through placenta

      • Elephants, rabbits, humans


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