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Chapter 11 Middle Childhood: Physical Development PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 11 Middle Childhood: Physical Development. Growth Patterns. What Patterns of Growth Occur in Middle Childhood?. Height and Weight Gain a little over 2 inches and 5 to 7 pounds per year Boys are slightly heavier and taller than girls until 9 or 10

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Chapter 11 Middle Childhood: Physical Development

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Chapter 11Middle Childhood:Physical Development

Growth Patterns

What Patterns of Growth Occur in Middle Childhood?

  • Height and Weight

    • Gain a little over 2 inches and 5 to 7 pounds per year

    • Boys are slightly heavier and taller than girls until 9 or 10

    • About age 11, boys develop more muscle and girls more fatty tissue

How Many Children in the United States Are Obese?

  • About one quarter of American children are obese

    • Prevalence of obesity has risen overall in America

  • Most overweight children become overweight adults

  • Overweight children and adolescents

    • Often are rejected by peers

    • Perform poorly in sports

    • Tend to like their bodies less than children of normal weight

A Closer Look

Treating High Blood Pressure in Middle Childhood

What Are the Causes of Obesity?

  • Heredity

  • Number of fat cells (adipose tissue)

    • Hunger drive is connected to number of fat cells

      • More fat cells – feel hunger sooner

  • Environmental factors

    • Obese parents may model poor dietary and exercise habits

    • Sedentary habits

      • TV watching encourages snacking, exposes children to commercials for food and is low physical activity

  • Stressors and emotional reactions

A Closer Look

Helping Children Lose Weight

Motor Development

What Changes in Motor Development Occur in Middle Childhood?

  • Gross Motor Skills

    • Increase in speed, strength, agility, and balance

    • Type of game/sport encourages large muscle growth

    • Connections between cerebellum and cortex become myelinated

      • Reaction time gradually improves

  • Fine Motor Skills

    • Tie shoes and hold pencils as adults do

Are There Sex Differences in Motor Skills?

  • Boys show slightly greater overall strength

    • More forearm strength – batting and throwing

  • Girls show greater coordination and flexibility

    • Gymnastics, dance, balancing

  • Boys more likely to be encouraged in athletics

  • Physical activity decreases with age in both sexes

Are Children in the United States Physically Fit?

  • Most children in the United States are not physically fit

  • Reasons for decline in fitness?

    • Watching television

    • More focus on sports than continuous exercise

      • Participation in sports declines after age 10

  • Fit children usually have parents who exercise and encourage them to exercise

Children With Disabilities

How Does Run-of-the-Mill Failure to “Listen” to Adults Differ From Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

  • Characteristic of ADHD

    • Developmentally inappropriate or excessive inattention,

    • Impulsivity, and

    • Hyperactivity

  • Onset occurs by age 7

    • Behaviors must persist for at least 6 months

    • Impairs function at school

    • Difficulty getting along with others

    • More common in boys than girls

  • Some argue ADHD is over-diagnosed and overmedicated

What Are the Causes of ADHD?

  • Heredity

    • Runs in families

  • Associated with other disorders

    • Anxiety, depression, tics

  • Brain abnormality or impairment

  • Inefficient inhibitory processes

    • Lack of executive control in the brain

Developing in a World of Diversity

African American Youth and ADHD

Why Are Children With ADHD Treated With Stimulants?

  • Hyperactivity stems from inability of cerebral cortex to inhibit more primitive areas of the brain

  • Stimulants used to stimulate the cerebral cortex

    • Blocks reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline

  • Children with ADHD on stimulants demonstrate

    • Increased attention span, improved cognitive performance

    • Reduction in disruptive, annoying, and aggressive behavior

  • Medication may cause side effects

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy is effective treatment

A Closer Look

Back To School – With Ritalin

What Are Learning Disabilities?

  • Characterized by inadequate development of specific academic, language and speech skills

    • Problems with reading, math, writing

    • Difficulties with speaking or understanding speech

    • Problems with motor coordination

  • Performs below expectations for age and intelligence

  • Usually persists throughout life


  • Persistent problem in reading

  • Affects 5 to 17.5% of American children

    • More common in boys than girls

  • Treatment

    • Initially – remediation

    • Later – accommodation

What Are the Origins of Dyslexia?

  • Genetic factors

    • Parent or sibling with dyslexia

  • Neurological problems

    • “Faulty wiring” in left hemisphere – angular gyrus

    • Difficulty associating letters with sounds

  • High levels of prenatal testosterone

    • Slows growth in the left hemisphere

Should Children With Learning Disabilities Be Placed In Regular Classrooms?

  • Research evidence is mixed

  • Segregation may negatively influence teacher expectations

  • Mainstreaming students

    • May overwhelm some

    • in others increases achievement

  • High performing disabled students benefit more from regular classes

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