Week 6: Power & Influence . News Theories/Applications Types of power Interpersonal influence Machiavellian manipulation Understanding systems Revenge effects. Discussion. What is power? What types of power do you most often use? What are the types you least often use? Why?
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Week 6: Power & Influence
The Types of Power
…the ability to observe the reactions of other people to your behavior and adjust your behavior accordingly to improve the relationship
15-25= High, 9-14 Moderate, 0-8 Low
___ 1.) I find it hard to imitate the behavior of others. ___ 2.) My behavior is usually an expression of my true inner feelings, attitudes, and beliefs. ___ 3.) At parties and social gatherings, I do not attempt to do or say things that others will like. ___ 4.) I can only argue for ideas which I already believe. ___ 5.) I can make impromptu speeches even on topics about which I have almost no information. ___ 6.) I guess I put on a show to impress or entertain people. ___ 7.) When I am uncertain how to act in a social situation, I look to the behavior of others for
cues. ___ 8.) I would probably make a good actor. ___ 9.) I rarely need the advice of my friends to choose movies, books, or music. ___ 10.) I sometimes appear to others to be experiencing deeper emotions than I actually am. ___ 11.) I laugh more when I watch a comedy with others than when alone. ___ 12.) In a group of people I am rarely the center of attention. ___ 13.) In different situations and with different people, I often act like very different persons. ___ 14.) I am not particularly good at making other people like me. ___ 15.) Even if I am not enjoying myself, I often pretend to be having a good time. ___ 16.) I'm not always the person I appear to be. ___ 17.) I would not change my opinions (or the way I do things) in order to please someone else or
win their favor. ___ 18.) I have considered being an entertainer. ___ 19.) In order to get along and be liked, I tend to be what people expect me to be rather than
anything else. ___ 20.) I have never been good at games like charades or improvisational acting. ___ 21.) I have trouble changing my behavior to suit different people and different situations. ___ 22.) At a party, I let others keep the jokes and stories going. ___ 23.) I feel a bit awkward in company and do not show up quite so well as I should. ___ 24.) I can look anyone in the eye and tell a lie with a straight face (if for a right end). ___ 25.) I may deceive people by being friendly when I really dislike them.
1.) F 2.) F 3.) F 4.) F 5.) T 6.) T 7.) T 8.) T 9.) F 10.) T 11.) T 12.) F 13.) T 14.) F 15.) T 16.) T 17.) F 18.) T 19.) T 20.) F 21.) F 22.) F 23.) F 24.) T 25.) T
Attention to situational and interpersonal cues & reactions
Thematic Apperception Cards
Distribution of Need Behaviors
Conclusions about Mach
The Persuasion Process
The copier request study
“Excuse me, may I use the Xerox machine, because I’m late to class?”
“Excuse me, may I use the Xerox machine?”
“Excuse me, may I use the Xerox machine, because I have to make some copies?”
“because”…(it doesn’t matter why…)
Paid only $1
Which Group reported liking the task more?
a boring task
Tendency to avoid information can be countered by eliciting interest,
norm of fairness, or perceive usefulness of information
Post-decision “buyer’s remorse” may be increased by importance or difficulty or irreversibility of decision
Counter-attitudinal action, freely chosen with little incentive or justification, leads to attitude change (e.g., new product at special low price)
Reciprocation: Give & Take, gifts & prizes, free, samplers
Commitment & consistency: careful decision & justify, bait & switch, FITD, 30-day trial period
Comparison & contrast: everyone else does it, canned laughter, salting collection plate, audience ringers, presigned contributors, testimonials, my idea is better because…
Likeability: attractiveness, similarity, compliment, nice, Tupperware parties, Mary Kay cosmetics, celebrities
Authority: title, office, uniform, expert, degree, “I’m no doctor but I play one on TV…,” doctors agree…
Card stacking: one-sided information, list, testimonials
Scarcity: limited quantity makes it valuable, limited time only, first come first served
Demonstration: See how easy, you can do it too, look how nice
Providing Argument & Evidence
Elaboration Likelihood Method (ELM)
Or, what you think is what you get…
Motivated to Process?
Ability to Process?
Nature of Active Cognitive Processing: (initial attitude, argument quality, etc.)
Enduring positive attitude change (persuasion)
Enduring negative attitude change (boomerang)
Retain or Regain Initial Attitude
Cognitive Structure Change: Are new cognitions adopted and stored in memory? Are different responses made salient than previously?
Foot in the door…
First make a small request, then when granted, make a larger (more desirable) request
Door in the face…
Make a large request, then when it is refused, make a smaller (more desired) request
Deception & Lying
What do we know about lying?
Possible verbal indicators of lying
Possible nonverbal indications of lying
NLP– the “eyes” have it
Analysis of Clinton’s testimony regarding Lewinsky affair
Causal Loop Diagram of a Model Examining Profitability in the Paper and Pulp Industry
Above causal loop diagram represents the key business dynamics for operations of the H-Desk Company. It may be helpful in locating the sources of different problems within the system as well as identifying the leverage points to rectify these problems. Note that a + sign means that cause and effect move in the same direction whereas a - sign indicate that they move in opposite to each other.
Understanding Obstacles to Innovation
Systems Theory Application
Variations in Work &