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Students with Special Needs - Can They Make the Grade?. Pam Tupy, Program Specialist Getting Results Conference 2006 Orange County Department of Education. Our Group Norms. Be respectful of one another and of our mutual learning Commit to active participation

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students with special needs can they make the grade

Students with Special Needs -Can They Make the Grade?

Pam Tupy, Program Specialist

Getting Results Conference 2006

Orange County Department of Education

our group norms
Our Group Norms
  • Be respectful of one another and of our mutual learning
  • Commit to active participation
  • Turn cell phones off or on silent mode

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

agenda key questions
Agenda: Key Questions
  • Why is effective reading instruction important and what does it look like?
  • What are some effective strategies for building academic language and writing skills?
  • How does this relate to Response to Intervention?

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

why are we here
Why Are We Here?

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

why are we here1
Why Are We Here?
  • 55% of all special education students in California are identified as having a specific learning disability (California Department of Education CDE - 2005)
  • It is estimated that 75%-85% of these students are not actually in need of special education services (Alice Parker, CDE- 2005)
  • These students show academic deficits because they never received scientifically-based reading instruction or a reading intervention early on
  • Effective prevention and intervention programs can increase the reading skills of 85-90% of poor readers to average levels

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

think pair share
Think-Pair-Share
  • Think of a student in your class who struggles with reading
    • What are some of that student’s challenges?
    • What are some preventative measures that could have helped him or her early on?
    • What is that child’s attitude about reading?
  • Share your reflections with a partner

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

according to the california special education reading task force students with disabilities need
According to the California Special Education Reading Task Force, Students With Disabilities Need:
  • Effective reading instruction
  • Early intervention and prevention
  • Assessment that drives instruction
  • Access to the core curriculum and reading instruction

The California Reading Initiative and Special Education in California 1999

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

effective reading instruction
Effective Reading Instruction
  • Reading does not develop naturally (Lyons 2000)
  • Reading failure begins early, takes root quickly and affects students for life (Moats 2000)
  • Language instruction needs to be systematic, structured, cumulative and match the developmental needs of students as it applies to age-appropriate texts (Moats 2000)

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

effective reading instruction1
Effective Reading Instruction
  • Older students need to be taught the foundational skills they at all levels- sound, word, sentence, and passage, so that they can unpack the building blocks of words (Moats 2000)
  • Special educators need research-based instructional tools that support effective instruction and should receive the same training and support as general educators (CA Special Education Task Force 1999)

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

critical reading skills requiring explicit instruction
Critical Reading Skills Requiring Explicit Instruction:
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Phonics
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Reading comprehension
  • Oral language skills (receptive vocabulary and syntax)
  • Prior knowledge for comprehension of text
  • Spelling and orthography

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

slide11
According to the1999 Reading/Language Arts Framework for California Public Schools Kindergarten through Grade Twelve:
  • The ultimate goal of language arts programs is to ensure access to high-quality curriculum and instruction for all students in order to meet content standards
  • A balanced approach for special ed students involves considerable time dedicated to intensive direct teaching of phonemic awareness, phonics, blending skills, and reading fluency while including meaning-based aspects as well
  • Language arts programs must be balanced and comprehensive, giving time and attention to each student based on individual needs and assessment

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

assessment that drives instruction
Assessment that Drives Instruction

The better we use data,

the better we teach.

California Special Education Reading Task Force 1999

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

norm referenced tests
Norm-Referenced Tests

Useful for:

  • determining eligibility
  • developing IEP goals
  • evaluating changes over time

but we need more diagnostic information to guide instruction and set measurable goals and objectives.

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

informal diagnostic tests
Informal Diagnostic Tests

Informal assessment should be used to assess specific skills to set individual goals and objectives for students.

For example, it can be used to identify a student’s frustration, independent, and instructional reading levels.

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

other skills informal tests should assess
Other Skills Informal Tests Should Assess:
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Phonics
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Reading comprehension
  • Oral language skills (receptive vocabulary and syntax)
  • Prior knowledge for comprehension of text
  • Spelling and orthography

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

slide16

Motivation

DECODING

COMPREHENSION

Word Recognition

Strategies

Fluency

Academic

Language

Comprehension

Strategies

Automaticity

Concepts

about print

(Re)Organizing text

Comprehension

Monitoring

Phonics

Background

Knowledge

Sight

Words

Phoneme

Awareness

Syntax

Text Structure

Vocabulary

Shefelbine’s Framework

1999 California Reading/Language Arts Framework, page 20

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

slide17

Academic Language

“Accelerating Academic English: A Focus on the English Learner”

-by Robin Scarcella

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

slide18

Academic Achievement at Three Levels of Academic Background Knowledge

Marzano 2004

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

developing academic language
Developing Academic Language

Vocabulary:

  • Factors affecting vocabulary development
  • Ways we learn words
  • What it means to know a word
  • Choosing which words to teach
  • Characteristics of effective vocabulary instruction
  • Research-based instructional strategies

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

developing academic language1
Developing Academic Language

Reading Comprehension:

  • Comprehension Monitoring
  • Graphic and Semantic Organizers
  • Generating Questions
  • Recognizing Story/Text Structure
  • Summarization
  • Reciprocal Teaching

National Reading Panel, Put Reading First p. 49-54

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

developing academic language2
Developing Academic Language

Writing:

  • Writing is a skill, and skills need practice
  • Writing should be a regular part of the curriculum
  • Writing should be purposeful
  • Writing should be read

Darin Hallstrom, Tustin USD

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

ten suggestions for creating an effective writing program for you and your students
Ten Suggestions for Creating an Effective Writing Program for You and Your Students
  • “ There is a difference between assigning writing tasks and teaching writing skills.”
    • If you don’t do this, you are inviting disappointment
    • Be crystal clear with your kids: what do you want?

Darin Hallstrom, Tustin USD

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

response to intervention
Response to Intervention
  • It is
    • A structure for allocating instructional resources efficiently, targeting them to specific student needs
    • A commitment to use our current knowledge base in our instruction
    • A commitment to use a logical decision-making framework to guide our instruction
    • A function of General Education

W. David Tilly, The Special Edge Winter/Spring 2006

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

response to intervention1
Features:

High-quality research-based instruction and research-based interventions

Universal screening and continuous progress monitoring

Fidelity measures

Tiers of intervention

Implementation of differentiated curriculum

Instruction delivered by staff other than classroom teacher only

Varied duration, frequency, and time of interventions

Categorical and noncategorical placement decisions

Structure for allocating resources

Response to Intervention

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

slide25

Important Points to Remember

Without proficient reading [and writing] skills, students’ access to subject content areas and prospects for academic and life success are greatly limited

1999 Reading/Language Arts Framework for California Public Schools Kindergarten through Grade Twelve

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

for more information
For More Information

Tupy-Orange County Department of Education 2006

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