Biomass biofuels ethanol
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Biomass & Biofuels Ethanol. San Jose State University FX Rongère April 2009. Biochemical Conversion. Thermochemical Conversion. Extraction. Anaerobic Digestion. Fermentation. Direct Combustion. Gasification. Pyrolysis Liquefaction. Steam. Gas. Oil. Charcoal. Biogas. Ethanol.

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Biomass & Biofuels Ethanol

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Biomass biofuels ethanol

Biomass & BiofuelsEthanol

San Jose State University

FX Rongère

April 2009


Biofuels

Biochemical Conversion

Thermochemical Conversion

Extraction

Anaerobic Digestion

Fermentation

Direct Combustion

Gasification

Pyrolysis

Liquefaction

Steam

Gas

Oil

Charcoal

Biogas

Ethanol

Bio-diesel

Heat

Electricity

Transportation

Biofuels

  • Biofuels cover a broad range of technologies and applications:

Source: From Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, 2004


Transportation fuels

Transportation fuels

  • The U.S. uses 130 billion gallons of gasoline and 41 billion gallons of diesel fuel per year made from oil of which 65% is imported

  • Transportation is the second source of CO2, about 2,000 MM tons per year in the USA

Source: EPA, Inventory of U.S. Green House Gas Emissions and Sinks 1990-2006 April, 2008


U s primary energy consumption by source and sector 2007 quadrillion btu

U.S. Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector, 2007(Quadrillion Btu)

Source: Energy Information Administration, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pecss_diagram.html


Transportation

Transportation

  • Passenger cars and light trucks count for 64% of transportation CO2 emissions

Passenger car

22.9 MPG

12,000 Miles/y

5 tons/y CO2

Light Duty Truck

16.2 MPG

11,000 Miles/y

7 tons/y CO2

Source: S Davis, S Diegel Transportation Data Book Edition 26, ORNL-6978, 2007


Increase of consumption

Increase of consumption

  • Large Pickups and large SUV have pushed gasoline consumption since mid-90s.

Source: S Davis, S Diegel Transportation Data Book Edition 26, ORNL-6978, 2007


Carbon emissions in transportation

Carbon emissions in Transportation

Source: S Davis, S Diegel Transportation Data Book Edition 26, ORNL-6978, 2007


Ethanol

H

O — H

H

H

Ethanol

  • Molecule: C2H6O

  • Anhydrous Ethanol may be blended with Gasoline from 10% (E10) or be used pure (E100)

H—C— C — H


Otto cycle

Otto Cycle

  • It differs from Diesel cycle because the combustion is performed at constant volume

Pressure

PH

PL

Volume

VL

VH


Energy analysis

Perfect compressor

Energy Analysis

  • Adiabatic Compression

Air is close to an ideal gas:


Energy analyisis

Energy Analyisis

  • Isentropic compression for a perfect gas like air

and


Energy analysis1

Energy Analysis

  • Compression phase:

  • Expansion phase:


Energy analysis2

Energy Analysis

  • Combustion phase:


Energy analysis3

Energy Analysis

  • Conversion rate:

and

then


Compression ratio

Compression Ratio

  • Auto-ignition point:

    • Gasoline: 280oC

    • Ethanol: 425oC

  • Compression Ratio

Ethanol

Gasoline

Nota: Actual cycles are not isentropic and reach lower temperature for the same compression ratio


Efficiency

Efficiency

  • Higher compression ratio of Ethanol allows higher conversion rate

Octane index of Ethanol is 113

Ethanol

Gasoline


Advantages

Advantages

  • Bio-degradable

  • Better Performance by increase of the compression ratio

  • May be blended with gasoline, the most used fuel

  • Broad feed stock


Disadvantages

Disadvantages

  • Lower Energy density than gasoline

  • Fuels with more than 10% ethanol are not compatible with non E85-ready fuel car because of corrosion

  • Distillation requires a lot of energy


Ethanol is booming

Ethanol is booming

Gasoline consumption in the USA: 130 bGallons/year


Ethanol plants 2007

Ethanol plants (2007)


Ethanol plants 20071

Ethanol plants (2007)


In other countries

In other countries

  • USA is the worldwide leader for bio-ethanol production followed by Brazil with 4.5 MM Gal/y in 2006

Cenex gas station on 320 Street Northwest in Bemidji, Minnesota


Production process

Step 1: Cracking of large polymer molecules to generate simple sugar: Glucose

Requires Energy

Step 2: Fermentation of the sugar with yeast to generate alcohol about 10%

C6H12O6 + yeast → 2 C2H6O + 2 CO2

Exothermic but must stay at 30 -37oC

Step 3: Distillation to raise the alcohol concentration to 95-96% limited by azeotropic ditillation

Requires a lot of energy of water evaporation

Production Process


Azeotropic distillation

Azeotropic distillation

  • Azeotrope is a mixture of two or more pure compounds which does not change with the temperature


Production process1

Sub-product valorization:

The residues are recycled as cattle food

It requires energy for concentration

Production Process

Step 4: Dehydration

Using Molecular sieves


Production process2

Production Process


Dried distillers grains ddgs

Dried Distillers Grains (DDGS)

  • Dried Distillers Grains are used as a food complement for animals

  • 1 bushel of corn produces 17 pounds of DDGS

  • Up to 40% of ruminant food may be DDGS

Source: Renewable Fuel Association Ethanol Industry Outlook 2007


Energy consumption for bioethanol production

Corn

Products

Cost

% of Energy in Corn

Energy Consumption for bioethanol Production

  • The balance for Ethanol generation is barely higher than 1:

= 66,000 MM BTU

1 acre

140 bushels

of corn

370 Gallons

of EtOH

31,000 MM BTU

Today, ethanol production (6,500 MM Gallons) represents 17 MM acres of Corn

Source: John Duxbury Update on the Biofuel Debate: Energetics, GHG Emissions, Strategy Crop and Soil Sciences Cornell University


Energy consumption for bioethanol production1

Energy Consumption for bioethanol Production

Source: Niclas Scott Bentsen Claus Felby Karen Hvid Ipsen 2006. ENERGY BALANCE OF 2nd GENERATION BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION IN DENMARK


Energy consumption for bioethanol production2

Energy Consumption for bioethanol Production

  • Total Processing Energy 39,000 to 50,000 BTU/gal

Bioethanol energy: 84,000 BTU/gal

Distillation energy:

22,500 BTU/Gal

7,900 kJ/kg

Pierre Côté, Christian Roy, Normand BernierVaperma Inc.Mark Schwartz, Ted Dodkin, Chris BradtGreenfield Ethanol, Inc. Dewatering Field Demonstration of the SiftekTMMembrane for Ethanol

International Fuel ethanol Workshops, June 2007


Distillation

Distillation


Distillation curve

Distillation Curve

Vapor

Liquid


Energy budget

Energy Budget

  • Vaporization Heat

First Stage:

Ethanol: 61%

Ethanol: 10%


Better solutions

Better solutions

  • Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR)

  • Membranes

Pierre Côté, Christian Roy, Normand BernierVaperma Inc.Mark Schwartz, Ted Dodkin, Chris BradtGreenfield Ethanol, Inc. Dewatering Field Demonstration of the SiftekTMMembrane for Ethanol

International Fuel ethanol Workshops, June 2007


How it works

How it works?

  • The vapor is compressed to raise its condensation temperature


How it works1

How it works?


How it works2

How it works


How it works3

How it works?


How it works4

How it works?

1,000 lb/h = 0.216 kg/s = 1/7.9 kg/s


Biomass biofuels ethanol

Energy in Ethanol

USA Brazil

Energy Balance for EtOH

USA & Brazil

  • Associative N fixation in cane reduces N input

  • Cane has 4 ratoon crops reducing planting cost

  • Bagasse is used to generate energy for cane conversion to ethanol

O:I 1.16 8.02

Source: John Duxbury Update on the Biofuel Debate: Energetics, GHG Emissions, Strategy Crop and Soil Sciences Cornell University


Ethanol plants

Ethanol Plants

Ethanol plant in West Burlington, Iowa

Ethanol plant in Sertãozinho, Brazil.

Ethanol plant in Macon, Missouri


Ethanol crop

Ethanol Crop

Sweet Sorghum

Corn

Sugar cane

Switch Grass

Poplar

Miscanthus


Corn price is driven by the market

Corn price is driven by the market

  • Tripled from 2005 to 2008, halved since July 2008

Source: www.futures.tradingcharts.com


Ethanol price 2008

Ethanol Price (2008)

Source: http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/oog/info/gdu/gasdiesel.asp

US $ per Gallon Gasoline Equivalent

$ 1.1 $ 2.2 $ 3.2 $ 4.2 $ 5.3

Wholesale price: $2.60

Source: John Duxbury Update on the Biofuel Debate: Energetics, GHG Emissions, Strategy Crop and Soil Sciences Cornell University Feb. 7, 2007


Ethanol price 2009

Ethanol Price (2009)

Source: http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/oog/info/gdu/gasdiesel.asp

US $ per Gallon Gasoline Equivalent

$ 1.1 $ 2.2 $ 3.2 $ 4.2 $ 5.3

Wholesale price: $1.23

Source: John Duxbury Update on the Biofuel Debate: Energetics, GHG Emissions, Strategy Crop and Soil Sciences Cornell University Feb. 7, 2007


Ethanol to replace mtbe

Ethanol to replace MTBE

  • MTBE is currently used to increase Octane index of gasoline and improve combustion

  • MTBE is a pollutant of water

  • Ethanol can replace MTBE in gasoline in the USA: 5.8% of Ethanol in gasoline i.e:

8,000 MM Gal/y

Molecule of MTBE: C5H12O


Summary biofuels

Summary BioFuels


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