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Biomass & Biofuels Ethanol. San Jose State University FX Rongère April 2009. Biochemical Conversion. Thermochemical Conversion. Extraction. Anaerobic Digestion. Fermentation. Direct Combustion. Gasification. Pyrolysis Liquefaction. Steam. Gas. Oil. Charcoal. Biogas. Ethanol.

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Biomass biofuels ethanol

Biomass & BiofuelsEthanol

San Jose State University

FX Rongère

April 2009


Biofuels

Biochemical Conversion

Thermochemical Conversion

Extraction

Anaerobic Digestion

Fermentation

Direct Combustion

Gasification

Pyrolysis

Liquefaction

Steam

Gas

Oil

Charcoal

Biogas

Ethanol

Bio-diesel

Heat

Electricity

Transportation

Biofuels

  • Biofuels cover a broad range of technologies and applications:

Source: From Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, 2004


Transportation fuels
Transportation fuels

  • The U.S. uses 130 billion gallons of gasoline and 41 billion gallons of diesel fuel per year made from oil of which 65% is imported

  • Transportation is the second source of CO2, about 2,000 MM tons per year in the USA

Source: EPA, Inventory of U.S. Green House Gas Emissions and Sinks 1990-2006 April, 2008


U s primary energy consumption by source and sector 2007 quadrillion btu
U.S. Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector, 2007(Quadrillion Btu)

Source: Energy Information Administration, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pecss_diagram.html


Transportation
Transportation

  • Passenger cars and light trucks count for 64% of transportation CO2 emissions

Passenger car

22.9 MPG

12,000 Miles/y

5 tons/y CO2

Light Duty Truck

16.2 MPG

11,000 Miles/y

7 tons/y CO2

Source: S Davis, S Diegel Transportation Data Book Edition 26, ORNL-6978, 2007


Increase of consumption
Increase of consumption

  • Large Pickups and large SUV have pushed gasoline consumption since mid-90s.

Source: S Davis, S Diegel Transportation Data Book Edition 26, ORNL-6978, 2007


Carbon emissions in transportation
Carbon emissions in Transportation

Source: S Davis, S Diegel Transportation Data Book Edition 26, ORNL-6978, 2007


Ethanol

H

O — H

H

H

Ethanol

  • Molecule: C2H6O

  • Anhydrous Ethanol may be blended with Gasoline from 10% (E10) or be used pure (E100)

H—C— C — H


Otto cycle
Otto Cycle

  • It differs from Diesel cycle because the combustion is performed at constant volume

Pressure

PH

PL

Volume

VL

VH


Energy analysis

Perfect compressor

Energy Analysis

  • Adiabatic Compression

Air is close to an ideal gas:


Energy analyisis
Energy Analyisis

  • Isentropic compression for a perfect gas like air

and


Energy analysis1
Energy Analysis

  • Compression phase:

  • Expansion phase:


Energy analysis2
Energy Analysis

  • Combustion phase:


Energy analysis3
Energy Analysis

  • Conversion rate:

and

then


Compression ratio
Compression Ratio

  • Auto-ignition point:

    • Gasoline: 280oC

    • Ethanol: 425oC

  • Compression Ratio

Ethanol

Gasoline

Nota: Actual cycles are not isentropic and reach lower temperature for the same compression ratio


Efficiency
Efficiency

  • Higher compression ratio of Ethanol allows higher conversion rate

Octane index of Ethanol is 113

Ethanol

Gasoline


Advantages
Advantages

  • Bio-degradable

  • Better Performance by increase of the compression ratio

  • May be blended with gasoline, the most used fuel

  • Broad feed stock


Disadvantages
Disadvantages

  • Lower Energy density than gasoline

  • Fuels with more than 10% ethanol are not compatible with non E85-ready fuel car because of corrosion

  • Distillation requires a lot of energy


Ethanol is booming
Ethanol is booming

Gasoline consumption in the USA: 130 bGallons/year




In other countries
In other countries

  • USA is the worldwide leader for bio-ethanol production followed by Brazil with 4.5 MM Gal/y in 2006

Cenex gas station on 320 Street Northwest in Bemidji, Minnesota


Production process

Step 1: Cracking of large polymer molecules to generate simple sugar: Glucose

Requires Energy

Step 2: Fermentation of the sugar with yeast to generate alcohol about 10%

C6H12O6 + yeast → 2 C2H6O + 2 CO2

Exothermic but must stay at 30 -37oC

Step 3: Distillation to raise the alcohol concentration to 95-96% limited by azeotropic ditillation

Requires a lot of energy of water evaporation

Production Process


Azeotropic distillation
Azeotropic distillation simple sugar: Glucose

  • Azeotrope is a mixture of two or more pure compounds which does not change with the temperature


Production process1

Sub-product valorization: simple sugar: Glucose

The residues are recycled as cattle food

It requires energy for concentration

Production Process

Step 4: Dehydration

Using Molecular sieves


Production process2
Production Process simple sugar: Glucose


Dried distillers grains ddgs
Dried Distillers Grains (DDGS) simple sugar: Glucose

  • Dried Distillers Grains are used as a food complement for animals

  • 1 bushel of corn produces 17 pounds of DDGS

  • Up to 40% of ruminant food may be DDGS

Source: Renewable Fuel Association Ethanol Industry Outlook 2007


Energy consumption for bioethanol production

Corn simple sugar: Glucose

Products

Cost

% of Energy in Corn

Energy Consumption for bioethanol Production

  • The balance for Ethanol generation is barely higher than 1:

= 66,000 MM BTU

1 acre

140 bushels

of corn

370 Gallons

of EtOH

31,000 MM BTU

Today, ethanol production (6,500 MM Gallons) represents 17 MM acres of Corn

Source: John Duxbury Update on the Biofuel Debate: Energetics, GHG Emissions, Strategy Crop and Soil Sciences Cornell University


Energy consumption for bioethanol production1
Energy Consumption for bioethanol Production simple sugar: Glucose

Source: Niclas Scott Bentsen Claus Felby Karen Hvid Ipsen 2006. ENERGY BALANCE OF 2nd GENERATION BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION IN DENMARK


Energy consumption for bioethanol production2
Energy Consumption for bioethanol Production simple sugar: Glucose

  • Total Processing Energy 39,000 to 50,000 BTU/gal

Bioethanol energy: 84,000 BTU/gal

Distillation energy:

22,500 BTU/Gal

7,900 kJ/kg

Pierre Côté, Christian Roy, Normand BernierVaperma Inc.Mark Schwartz, Ted Dodkin, Chris BradtGreenfield Ethanol, Inc. Dewatering Field Demonstration of the SiftekTMMembrane for Ethanol

International Fuel ethanol Workshops, June 2007


Distillation
Distillation simple sugar: Glucose


Distillation curve
Distillation Curve simple sugar: Glucose

Vapor

Liquid


Energy budget
Energy Budget simple sugar: Glucose

  • Vaporization Heat

First Stage:

Ethanol: 61%

Ethanol: 10%


Better solutions
Better solutions simple sugar: Glucose

  • Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR)

  • Membranes

Pierre Côté, Christian Roy, Normand BernierVaperma Inc.Mark Schwartz, Ted Dodkin, Chris BradtGreenfield Ethanol, Inc. Dewatering Field Demonstration of the SiftekTMMembrane for Ethanol

International Fuel ethanol Workshops, June 2007


How it works
How it works? simple sugar: Glucose

  • The vapor is compressed to raise its condensation temperature


How it works1
How it works? simple sugar: Glucose


How it works2
How it works simple sugar: Glucose


How it works3
How it works? simple sugar: Glucose


How it works4
How it works? simple sugar: Glucose

1,000 lb/h = 0.216 kg/s = 1/7.9 kg/s


Energy in Ethanol simple sugar: Glucose

USA Brazil

Energy Balance for EtOH

USA & Brazil

  • Associative N fixation in cane reduces N input

  • Cane has 4 ratoon crops reducing planting cost

  • Bagasse is used to generate energy for cane conversion to ethanol

O:I 1.16 8.02

Source: John Duxbury Update on the Biofuel Debate: Energetics, GHG Emissions, Strategy Crop and Soil Sciences Cornell University


Ethanol plants
Ethanol Plants simple sugar: Glucose

Ethanol plant in West Burlington, Iowa

Ethanol plant in Sertãozinho, Brazil.

Ethanol plant in Macon, Missouri


Ethanol crop
Ethanol Crop simple sugar: Glucose

Sweet Sorghum

Corn

Sugar cane

Switch Grass

Poplar

Miscanthus


Corn price is driven by the market
Corn price is driven by the market simple sugar: Glucose

  • Tripled from 2005 to 2008, halved since July 2008

Source: www.futures.tradingcharts.com


Ethanol price 2008
Ethanol Price (2008) simple sugar: Glucose

Source: http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/oog/info/gdu/gasdiesel.asp

US $ per Gallon Gasoline Equivalent

$ 1.1 $ 2.2 $ 3.2 $ 4.2 $ 5.3

Wholesale price: $2.60

Source: John Duxbury Update on the Biofuel Debate: Energetics, GHG Emissions, Strategy Crop and Soil Sciences Cornell University Feb. 7, 2007


Ethanol price 2009
Ethanol Price (2009) simple sugar: Glucose

Source: http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/oog/info/gdu/gasdiesel.asp

US $ per Gallon Gasoline Equivalent

$ 1.1 $ 2.2 $ 3.2 $ 4.2 $ 5.3

Wholesale price: $1.23

Source: John Duxbury Update on the Biofuel Debate: Energetics, GHG Emissions, Strategy Crop and Soil Sciences Cornell University Feb. 7, 2007


Ethanol to replace mtbe
Ethanol to replace MTBE simple sugar: Glucose

  • MTBE is currently used to increase Octane index of gasoline and improve combustion

  • MTBE is a pollutant of water

  • Ethanol can replace MTBE in gasoline in the USA: 5.8% of Ethanol in gasoline i.e:

8,000 MM Gal/y

Molecule of MTBE: C5H12O


Summary biofuels
Summary BioFuels simple sugar: Glucose


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