The mole
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THE MOLE. What a fun concept. WHAT IS A MOLE?. A burrowing critter? A skin pigmentation? A word that evokes an enormous number? 1 mole of any substance equals 6.02 x 10 23 representative particles of that substance 6.02 x 10 23 is known as Avogadro’s number.

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THE MOLE

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The mole

THE MOLE

What a fun concept


What is a mole

WHAT IS A MOLE?

  • A burrowing critter?

  • A skin pigmentation?

  • A word that evokes an enormous number?

    • 1 mole of any substance equals 6.02 x 1023 representative particles of that substance

    • 6.02 x 1023 is known as Avogadro’s number


What is a representative particle

WHAT IS A REPRESENTATIVE PARTICLE?

  • It depends on what the substance is

  • What can a substance be?

    • Element

      • Anything but the BrINClHOF elements which are diatomic molecules in nature

    • Molecular compound

      • Made of two or more nonmetals…includes BrINClHOF elements with their subscripts of 2

    • Ionic compound

      • Made of a metal and a nonmetal or contains a polyatomic ion


A handy little chart

A HANDY LITTLE CHART


So here we go

SO, HERE WE GO…

  • 1 mol of Fe contains 6.02 x 1023atoms of Fe

  • 1 mol of Br2 contains 6.02 x 1023molecules of Br2

  • 1 mol of NaCl contains 6.02 x 1023formula units of NaCl

  • 1 mol of SO3 contains 6.02 x 1023molecules of SO3

  • 1 mol of Na2O contains 6.02 x 1023formula units of Na2O


And we make that info useful by writing it as

AND WE MAKE THAT INFO USEFUL BY WRITING IT AS…

  • 1 mol Fe

    6.02 x 1023atoms Fe

  • 1 mol of Br2

    6.02 x 1023molec Br2

  • 1 mol of NaCl

    6.02 x 1023fu NaCl

  • 1 mol of SO3

    6.02 x 1023molec SO3

  • 1 mol Na2O

    6.02 x 1023fu Na2O


Or we can flip them to get

OR WE CAN FLIP THEM TO GET…

  • 6.02 x 1023atoms Fe

    1 mol Fe

  • 6.02 x 1023molec Br2

    1 mol of Br2

  • 6.02 x 1023fu NaCl

    1 mol of NaCl

  • 6.02 x 1023molec SO3

    1 mol of SO3

  • 6.02 x 1023fu Na2O

    1 mol Na2O


Smaller bits

SMALLER BITS?

  • Only for molecules and formula units

    • 1 molec Br2 has 2 atoms of Br

    • 1 fu NaCl has 1 Na1+ ion and 1 Cl1- ion

    • 1 molec SO3 has 1 S atom and 3 O atoms

    • 1 fu Na2O has 2 Na1+ ions and 1 O2- ion


Molar mass

MOLAR MASS

  • The mass of one mole of a substance

    • Use average atomic masses from the periodic table and round their masses to the hundredths place for consistency

    • Unit is g/mol

    • 1 mol Fe = 55.85 g Fe …55.85 g Fe = 1 mol Fe

    • 1 mol Feor55.85 g Fe

      55.85 g Fe1 mol Fe


Molar mass of a compound

MOLAR MASS OF A COMPOUND

  • For a compound, you must calculate the molar mass

  • Molar Mass of Br2

    Br---2 x 79.90 = 159.80 g/mol

  • 1 mol Br2 or159.80 g Br2

    159.80 g Br2 1 mol Br2


Molar mass of a compound1

MOLAR MASS OF A COMPOUND

  • Molar Mass of NaCl

    Na---1 x 22.99 = 22.99

    Cl--- 1 x 35.45 = 35.45

    58.44 g/mol

  • 1 mol NaClor58.44 g NaCl

    58.44 g NaCl 1 mol NaCl


Molar mass of a compound2

MOLAR MASS OF A COMPOUND

  • Molar Mass of SO3

    S---1 x 32.06 = 32.06

    O---3 x 16.00 = 48.00

    80.06 g/mol

  • 1 mol SO3 or80.06g SO3

    80.06 g SO3 1 mol SO3


Molar mass of a compound3

MOLAR MASS OF A COMPOUND

  • Molar Mass of Na2O

    Na---2 x 22.99 = 45.98

    O--- 1 x 16.00 = 16.00

    61.98 g/mol

  • 1 mol Na2O or61.98 g Na2O

    61.98 g Na2O 1 mol Na2O


Molar mass of a compound4

MOLAR MASS OF A COMPOUND

  • Molar Mass of Ca(OH)2

    Ca---1 x 40.08 = 40.08

    O--- 2 x 16.00 = 32.00

    H--- 2 x 1.01 = 2.02

    74.10 g/mol

  • 1 mol Ca(OH)2 or74.10 g Ca(OH)2

    74.10 g Ca(OH)2 1 mol Ca(OH)2


Molar mass of a compound5

MOLAR MASS OF A COMPOUND

  • Molar Mass of Mg(C2H3O2)2

    Mg---1 x 40.08 = 24.31

    C--- 4 x 12.00 = 48.00

    H--- 6 x 1.01 = 6.06

    O--- 4 x 16.00 = 64.00

    142.37 g/mol

  • 1 mol Mg(C2H3O2)2 or142.37 g Mg(C2H3O2)2

    142.37 g Mg(C2H3O2)2 1 mol Mg(C2H3O2)2


Another handy chart

ANOTHER HANDY CHART

1 mol


And now you put it all together

AND NOW, YOU PUT IT ALL TOGETHER

  • How many atoms of helium are in 4.50 mol of helium?

    • Is helium an element, molecular compound, or ionic compound?

    • What is its representative particle?

    • Use your given information to begin your dimensional analysis or unit conversion…always write a number, unit, and substance

      4.50 mol He x 6.02 x 1023 atoms He = 2.71 x 1024 atoms He

      1 mol He


So have fun

SO, HAVE FUN

  • If a sample of chlorine gas contains 2.97 x 1024 atoms of Cl, how many moles of chlorine gas are there?

    • Is chlorine gas an element, molecular compound, or ionic compound?

    • What is its representative particle?

    • Use your given information to begin your dimensional analysis or unit conversion…always write a number, unit, and substance

      2.97 x 1024atoms Clx 1 molec Cl2x 1 mol Cl2 =

      2 atoms Cl 6.02 x 1023molec Cl2


Practicing

PRACTICING

  • How many sulfide ions are present in 10.0 g of ferric sulfide?

    • Is ferric sulfide an element, molecular compound, or ionic compound?

    • What is its representative particle?

    • Use your given information to begin your dimensional analysis or unit conversion…always write a number, unit, and substance

      10.0 g Fe2S3x 1 mol Fe2S3 x 6.02 x 1023 fu Fe2S3x 207.88 g Fe2S3 1 mol Fe2S3

      3 ions S2- =

      1 fu Fe2S3


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