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THE MOLE

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THE MOLE

What a fun concept

- A burrowing critter?
- A skin pigmentation?
- A word that evokes an enormous number?
- 1 mole of any substance equals 6.02 x 1023 representative particles of that substance
- 6.02 x 1023 is known as Avogadro’s number

- It depends on what the substance is
- What can a substance be?
- Element
- Anything but the BrINClHOF elements which are diatomic molecules in nature

- Molecular compound
- Made of two or more nonmetals…includes BrINClHOF elements with their subscripts of 2

- Ionic compound
- Made of a metal and a nonmetal or contains a polyatomic ion

- Element

- 1 mol of Fe contains 6.02 x 1023atoms of Fe
- 1 mol of Br2 contains 6.02 x 1023molecules of Br2
- 1 mol of NaCl contains 6.02 x 1023formula units of NaCl
- 1 mol of SO3 contains 6.02 x 1023molecules of SO3
- 1 mol of Na2O contains 6.02 x 1023formula units of Na2O

- 1 mol Fe
6.02 x 1023atoms Fe

- 1 mol of Br2
6.02 x 1023molec Br2

- 1 mol of NaCl
6.02 x 1023fu NaCl

- 1 mol of SO3
6.02 x 1023molec SO3

- 1 mol Na2O
6.02 x 1023fu Na2O

- 6.02 x 1023atoms Fe
1 mol Fe

- 6.02 x 1023molec Br2
1 mol of Br2

- 6.02 x 1023fu NaCl
1 mol of NaCl

- 6.02 x 1023molec SO3
1 mol of SO3

- 6.02 x 1023fu Na2O
1 mol Na2O

- Only for molecules and formula units
- 1 molec Br2 has 2 atoms of Br
- 1 fu NaCl has 1 Na1+ ion and 1 Cl1- ion
- 1 molec SO3 has 1 S atom and 3 O atoms
- 1 fu Na2O has 2 Na1+ ions and 1 O2- ion

- The mass of one mole of a substance
- Use average atomic masses from the periodic table and round their masses to the hundredths place for consistency
- Unit is g/mol
- 1 mol Fe = 55.85 g Fe …55.85 g Fe = 1 mol Fe
- 1 mol Feor55.85 g Fe
55.85 g Fe1 mol Fe

- For a compound, you must calculate the molar mass
- Molar Mass of Br2
Br---2 x 79.90 = 159.80 g/mol

- 1 mol Br2 or159.80 g Br2
159.80 g Br2 1 mol Br2

- Molar Mass of NaCl
Na---1 x 22.99 = 22.99

Cl--- 1 x 35.45 = 35.45

58.44 g/mol

- 1 mol NaClor58.44 g NaCl
58.44 g NaCl 1 mol NaCl

- Molar Mass of SO3
S---1 x 32.06 = 32.06

O---3 x 16.00 = 48.00

80.06 g/mol

- 1 mol SO3 or80.06g SO3
80.06 g SO3 1 mol SO3

- Molar Mass of Na2O
Na---2 x 22.99 = 45.98

O--- 1 x 16.00 = 16.00

61.98 g/mol

- 1 mol Na2O or61.98 g Na2O
61.98 g Na2O 1 mol Na2O

- Molar Mass of Ca(OH)2
Ca---1 x 40.08 = 40.08

O--- 2 x 16.00 = 32.00

H--- 2 x 1.01 = 2.02

74.10 g/mol

- 1 mol Ca(OH)2 or74.10 g Ca(OH)2
74.10 g Ca(OH)2 1 mol Ca(OH)2

- Molar Mass of Mg(C2H3O2)2
Mg---1 x 40.08 = 24.31

C--- 4 x 12.00 = 48.00

H--- 6 x 1.01 = 6.06

O--- 4 x 16.00 = 64.00

142.37 g/mol

- 1 mol Mg(C2H3O2)2 or142.37 g Mg(C2H3O2)2
142.37 g Mg(C2H3O2)2 1 mol Mg(C2H3O2)2

1 mol

- How many atoms of helium are in 4.50 mol of helium?
- Is helium an element, molecular compound, or ionic compound?
- What is its representative particle?
- Use your given information to begin your dimensional analysis or unit conversion…always write a number, unit, and substance
4.50 mol He x 6.02 x 1023 atoms He = 2.71 x 1024 atoms He

1 mol He

- If a sample of chlorine gas contains 2.97 x 1024 atoms of Cl, how many moles of chlorine gas are there?
- Is chlorine gas an element, molecular compound, or ionic compound?
- What is its representative particle?
- Use your given information to begin your dimensional analysis or unit conversion…always write a number, unit, and substance
2.97 x 1024atoms Clx 1 molec Cl2x 1 mol Cl2 =

2 atoms Cl 6.02 x 1023molec Cl2

- How many sulfide ions are present in 10.0 g of ferric sulfide?
- Is ferric sulfide an element, molecular compound, or ionic compound?
- What is its representative particle?
- Use your given information to begin your dimensional analysis or unit conversion…always write a number, unit, and substance
10.0 g Fe2S3x 1 mol Fe2S3 x 6.02 x 1023 fu Fe2S3x 207.88 g Fe2S3 1 mol Fe2S3

3 ions S2- =

1 fu Fe2S3