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THE MOLE. What a fun concept. WHAT IS A MOLE?. A burrowing critter? A skin pigmentation? A word that evokes an enormous number? 1 mole of any substance equals 6.02 x 10 23 representative particles of that substance 6.02 x 10 23 is known as Avogadro’s number.

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the mole

THE MOLE

What a fun concept

what is a mole
WHAT IS A MOLE?
  • A burrowing critter?
  • A skin pigmentation?
  • A word that evokes an enormous number?
    • 1 mole of any substance equals 6.02 x 1023 representative particles of that substance
    • 6.02 x 1023 is known as Avogadro’s number
what is a representative particle
WHAT IS A REPRESENTATIVE PARTICLE?
  • It depends on what the substance is
  • What can a substance be?
    • Element
      • Anything but the BrINClHOF elements which are diatomic molecules in nature
    • Molecular compound
      • Made of two or more nonmetals…includes BrINClHOF elements with their subscripts of 2
    • Ionic compound
      • Made of a metal and a nonmetal or contains a polyatomic ion
so here we go
SO, HERE WE GO…
  • 1 mol of Fe contains 6.02 x 1023atoms of Fe
  • 1 mol of Br2 contains 6.02 x 1023molecules of Br2
  • 1 mol of NaCl contains 6.02 x 1023formula units of NaCl
  • 1 mol of SO3 contains 6.02 x 1023molecules of SO3
  • 1 mol of Na2O contains 6.02 x 1023formula units of Na2O
and we make that info useful by writing it as
AND WE MAKE THAT INFO USEFUL BY WRITING IT AS…
  • 1 mol Fe

6.02 x 1023atoms Fe

  • 1 mol of Br2

6.02 x 1023molec Br2

  • 1 mol of NaCl

6.02 x 1023fu NaCl

  • 1 mol of SO3

6.02 x 1023molec SO3

  • 1 mol Na2O

6.02 x 1023fu Na2O

or we can flip them to get
OR WE CAN FLIP THEM TO GET…
  • 6.02 x 1023atoms Fe

1 mol Fe

  • 6.02 x 1023molec Br2

1 mol of Br2

  • 6.02 x 1023fu NaCl

1 mol of NaCl

  • 6.02 x 1023molec SO3

1 mol of SO3

  • 6.02 x 1023fu Na2O

1 mol Na2O

smaller bits
SMALLER BITS?
  • Only for molecules and formula units
    • 1 molec Br2 has 2 atoms of Br
    • 1 fu NaCl has 1 Na1+ ion and 1 Cl1- ion
    • 1 molec SO3 has 1 S atom and 3 O atoms
    • 1 fu Na2O has 2 Na1+ ions and 1 O2- ion
molar mass
MOLAR MASS
  • The mass of one mole of a substance
    • Use average atomic masses from the periodic table and round their masses to the hundredths place for consistency
    • Unit is g/mol
    • 1 mol Fe = 55.85 g Fe …55.85 g Fe = 1 mol Fe
    • 1 mol Fe or 55.85 g Fe

55.85 g Fe 1 mol Fe

molar mass of a compound
MOLAR MASS OF A COMPOUND
  • For a compound, you must calculate the molar mass
  • Molar Mass of Br2

Br---2 x 79.90 = 159.80 g/mol

  • 1 mol Br2 or 159.80 g Br2

159.80 g Br2 1 mol Br2

molar mass of a compound1
MOLAR MASS OF A COMPOUND
  • Molar Mass of NaCl

Na---1 x 22.99 = 22.99

Cl--- 1 x 35.45 = 35.45

58.44 g/mol

  • 1 mol NaCl or 58.44 g NaCl

58.44 g NaCl 1 mol NaCl

molar mass of a compound2
MOLAR MASS OF A COMPOUND
  • Molar Mass of SO3

S---1 x 32.06 = 32.06

O---3 x 16.00 = 48.00

80.06 g/mol

  • 1 mol SO3 or 80.06g SO3

80.06 g SO3 1 mol SO3

molar mass of a compound3
MOLAR MASS OF A COMPOUND
  • Molar Mass of Na2O

Na---2 x 22.99 = 45.98

O--- 1 x 16.00 = 16.00

61.98 g/mol

  • 1 mol Na2O or 61.98 g Na2O

61.98 g Na2O 1 mol Na2O

molar mass of a compound4
MOLAR MASS OF A COMPOUND
  • Molar Mass of Ca(OH)2

Ca---1 x 40.08 = 40.08

O--- 2 x 16.00 = 32.00

H--- 2 x 1.01 = 2.02

74.10 g/mol

  • 1 mol Ca(OH)2 or 74.10 g Ca(OH)2

74.10 g Ca(OH)2 1 mol Ca(OH)2

molar mass of a compound5
MOLAR MASS OF A COMPOUND
  • Molar Mass of Mg(C2H3O2)2

Mg---1 x 40.08 = 24.31

C--- 4 x 12.00 = 48.00

H--- 6 x 1.01 = 6.06

O--- 4 x 16.00 = 64.00

142.37 g/mol

  • 1 mol Mg(C2H3O2)2 or 142.37 g Mg(C2H3O2)2

142.37 g Mg(C2H3O2)2 1 mol Mg(C2H3O2)2

and now you put it all together
AND NOW, YOU PUT IT ALL TOGETHER
  • How many atoms of helium are in 4.50 mol of helium?
    • Is helium an element, molecular compound, or ionic compound?
    • What is its representative particle?
    • Use your given information to begin your dimensional analysis or unit conversion…always write a number, unit, and substance

4.50 mol He x 6.02 x 1023 atoms He = 2.71 x 1024 atoms He

1 mol He

so have fun
SO, HAVE FUN
  • If a sample of chlorine gas contains 2.97 x 1024 atoms of Cl, how many moles of chlorine gas are there?
    • Is chlorine gas an element, molecular compound, or ionic compound?
    • What is its representative particle?
    • Use your given information to begin your dimensional analysis or unit conversion…always write a number, unit, and substance

2.97 x 1024atoms Clx 1 molec Cl2x 1 mol Cl2 =

2 atoms Cl 6.02 x 1023molec Cl2

practicing
PRACTICING
  • How many sulfide ions are present in 10.0 g of ferric sulfide?
    • Is ferric sulfide an element, molecular compound, or ionic compound?
    • What is its representative particle?
    • Use your given information to begin your dimensional analysis or unit conversion…always write a number, unit, and substance

10.0 g Fe2S3x 1 mol Fe2S3 x 6.02 x 1023 fu Fe2S3x 207.88 g Fe2S3 1 mol Fe2S3

3 ions S2- =

1 fu Fe2S3

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