~Chapter 18~ . The Enlightenment & American Revolution 1707-1800 By: Katya Joseph. Philosophy in the Age of Reason. The Scientific Revolution of the 15 and 1600’s had transformed the way people in Europe looked at the world. It led to another revolution in thinking: the Enlightenment.
The Enlightenment & American Revolution 1707-1800
By: Katya Joseph
In France, an influential thinker, Baron Montesquieu wrote “The Spirit of the Law”. He believed that there should be three branches of government: legislative, executive, and judicial. He thinks of checks and balances, and wanted to build a world where no one man had all the power.
Philosophes- lovers of wisdom- group of Enlightenment thinkers (in France) who applied to the methods of science to better understand and improve society.
Francois-Marie Arouet, a.k.a Voltaire, targeted corrupt officials and idle aristocrats. He wrote about inequality, injustice and superstition.
Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote “The Social Contract”. He felt that in order for a society to function, individuals had to give up certain rights. He also believed that people are naturally good but society corrupts them. He supported a limited government/ democracy.
Denis Diderot produced a 28-volume Encyclopedia.
The Enlightenment slogan, “free and equal” did not apply to women. Mid 1700’s, a small but growing number of women protested this view.
Their arguments, however, were ridiculed and sharply condemned. Mary Wollonscraft agreed that women had a first duty, but also felt that women should decide what is in her own interests.
Physiocrats- thinkers who searched for natural rights to explain economics. This group of people urged the policy of:
Laissez Faire- allowing businesses to run with little or no government interference.
Adam Smith wrote “The Wealth of Nations”. He believed that the government should not get involved in personal business. He also believed that that prices should be regulated by free market
Drafted by Thomas Jefferson between June 11 and June 28, 1776, the Declaration of Independence is at once the nation's most cherished symbol of liberty and Jefferson's most enduring monument. Here, in exalted and unforgettable phrases, Jefferson expressed the convictions in the minds and hearts of the American people. The political philosophy of the Declaration was not new; its ideals of individual liberty had already been expressed by John Locke and the Continental philosophers. What Jefferson did was to summarize this philosophy in "self-evident truths" and set forth a list of grievances against the King in order to justify before the world the breaking of ties between the colonies and the mother country.
Take out a pen and paper. Lets put what you’ve learned to test!
Speaker A: Good government stresses the importance of the nation and accepts the rights of the individual only if the interests of the individual are the same as those of the nation.Speaker B: The person of the king is sacred and to attack him in any way is to attack religion itself. The respect given to a king is religious in nature.Speaker C: All human beings are born free and equal with a right to life and liberty. It is the duty of government to protect these natural rights of its citizens.Speaker D: Our goal will not be achieved by democracy or liberal reforms, but by blood and iron. Only then will we be successful. No nation achieves greatness or unity without the traumatic experiences of war.
Which speaker’s statement best reflects the ideas of the Enlightenment?
The correct answer is C. The natural rights retained by citizens was a major theme of the Enlightenment and was endorsed by Thomas Locke in his Two Treatises of Government (1690), and Jean-Jaques Rousseau in his Social Contract.
Writers of the Enlightenment were primarily interested in separation of powers; legislative, executive, and judicial government borrowed directly from Montesquieu.Question 2
1. changing the relationship between people and their government
2. supporting the divine right theory
3. debating the role of the church in society
4. promoting increased power for European monarchs
The correct answer is 1. In direct opposition to the theory of divine right, Enlightenment philosophers often wrote of the social contract, in which rulers must protect the rights of their citizens, and citizens have the right to replace rulers who do not protect their rights.
A major concept promoted by philosophers of the Enlightenment was the need for
1. a return to traditional medieval ideas
2. the use of reason for rational and logical thinking
3. overseas expansion by western European nations
4. strengthening the power of the organized religions
The correct answer is 2. Enlightenment philosophers rejected traditional church teachings and promoted the idea that man should use logic and reason to define the world around him. This led to changes in government and society.
a return to feudalism in Europe
a government ruled by a divine right monarchy
a society ruled by the Catholic Church
a society in which the people chose the rulerQuestion 4
The Correct Answer is 4. Locke and Rousseau’s ideas from the Enlightenment formed the basis of modern democracy.Question 4
According to the Declaration of Independence, the people have the right to alter or abolish a government if that government
is a limited monarchy
violates natural rights
becomes involved in entangling alliances
favors one religion over another
The Correct Answer is 2.The writings of John Locke and other authors of the Enlightenment expressed the idea of “The Consent of the Governed”. Rousseau also maintained that a “Social Contract” existed between government and the governed and when government failed to protect rights, a revolution was in order.
5/5~ Seems like you know your History!
4/5~ Not bad at all, Nice job!
3/4~ Well, not horrible but looking over a few things wouldn’t be so bad
2/5~ Did you really even read the presentation?
1/5~ NEXT TIME START AT PAGE 1!
4th Quarter Project
Due May 7th