Biodiesel an alternate fuel
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BIODIESEL : AN ALTERNATE FUEL. Dr. J. P. Nath Baripada. What are Biofuels ?. Renewable fuels from bio sources Include Ethanol Biodiesel Bio-hydrogen Biogases. WHY BIOFUELS?. SUSTAINABILITY POLLUTION THREAT REDUCTION OF GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS REGIONAL (RURAL) DEVELOPMENT

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Biodiesel an alternate fuel

BIODIESEL :AN ALTERNATE FUEL

Dr. J. P. Nath

Baripada


What are biofuels

What are Biofuels ?

  • Renewable fuels from bio sources

  • Include

    • Ethanol

    • Biodiesel

    • Bio-hydrogen

    • Biogases


Why biofuels

WHY BIOFUELS?

  • SUSTAINABILITY

  • POLLUTION THREAT

  • REDUCTION OF GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

  • REGIONAL (RURAL) DEVELOPMENT

  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE & AGRICULTURE

  • SECURITY OF SUPPLY


First use of peanut oil in 1895 by dr rudolf diesel

“The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today. But such oils may become in course of time as important as petroleum and the coal tar products of the present time."

FIRST USE OF PEANUT OIL IN1895 BY DR RUDOLF DIESEL

(1858 – 1913) 1912


World experience on biodiesel

WORLD EXPERIENCE ON BIODIESEL


Biodiesel an alternate fuel

BIODIESEL IN EUROPE

  • Biodiesel has been produced on an industrial scale in EU

  • since 1992, largely in response to positive signals from the EU

  • institutions.

  • In 2001, it is estimated that some twenty plants produced around 1 million tonnes, mainly in

    • Austria,

    • Belgium,

    • France,

    • Germany,

    • Italy,

    • Sweden.


Biodiesel an alternate fuel

Total biodiesel production in 2000 (mt)

France

328,000

Germany

246,000

Italy

78,000

Austria

27,600

Belgium

20,000

Total

700,600

The German biodiesel sector saw the biggest production increase of the five countries in 2000. Its growth rate was 31% with total production of 246,000mt compared with 171,000mt in 1999.


Eu targets for biofuel

EU TARGETS FOR BIOFUEL

Biodiesel growth : 25%/ Year

Germany/Austria-no tax, UK 20% lower tax

Other Countries 0-10% of diesel Tax


Us lead a senate report

US Lead – A Senate Report

  • Analyze the agricultural sector and macroeconomic impacts of the Hagel-Johnson renewable energy bill (S.1006)

    • Requires a minimum percentage of motor vehicle fuel sold in the U.S. must be renewable fuel.

    • 0.8% in 2002 to 5% by 2012 ( NOW MAY BE 8% )

    • Renewable fuels are biodiesel, ethanol or other fuel produced from biomass and biogas.

JMU-07/01


Biodiesel production

Biodiesel Production


Biodiesel an alternate fuel

What US people pay for in a gallon of diesel

(Dec, 2002)

Retail Price: $1.29 / gallon

Retail Price Rs.16.85 / L


Biodiesel vs other alternate fuels

BIODIESEL vs OTHER ALTERNATE FUELS

DIESELCNGLNGMETHANOL ETHANOL BIODIESEL

___________________________________________________________________________

Vehicle cost10555510

Infrastructure10255510

Safety743138

Operating range10510101010

Operating cost1057557

Reliability10753310

Customer

acceptance588898

Funding

assistance1102022

Training cost10555510

Fuel availability10105556

Fuel quality9510889

Fuel price

stability 688666

TOTAL987473616696__


Biodiesel an alternate fuel

  • WHAT IS BIODIESEL ?

  • Biodiesel is vegetable oil processed to resemble Diesel Fuel

  • High Cetane

  • High lubricity

  • Comparable BTU content

  • Readily mixes with diesel

  • Ready to use in diesel run engines


Importance of biodiesel

IMPORTANCE OF BIODIESEL

  • Environment friendly

  • Clean burning

  • Renewable fuel

  • No engine modification

  • Increase in engine life

  • Biodegradable and non-toxic

  • Easy to handle and store


Biodiesel

BIODIESEL

  • Made by chemically combining any natural oil or fat with an alcohol

  • Most of the oils, edible & non-edible are suitable

  • Selection of feed stock based on

    * Availability

    * Price

    * Policy

  • France,Germany & Italy currently the leaders


Raw materials

RAW MATERIALS

  • Rapeseed, the major source (>80%)

  • Sunflower oil (10%, Italy and Southern France)

  • Soybean oil (USA & Brazil)

  • Palm oil (Malaysia)

  • Linseed, olive oils (Spain)

  • Cottonseed oil (Greece)

  • Beef tallow (Ireland), lard, used frying oil (Austria), Jatropha (Nicaragua & South Americas), Guang-Pi (China)


Biodiesel an alternate fuel

BASIC REACTION


Biodiesel an alternate fuel

BIODIESEL SPECIFICATIONS


Biodiesel process at ioc r d

BIODIESEL PROCESS ATIOC (R&D )

  • Base catalyzed transesterification of oil

    RAW MATERIALS USED

    *Rice Bran oil

    *Sunflower oil

    *Mohuva oil

    *Rapeseed oil

    *Japtropha oil

    * Karanjia oil

    SCALE: 100g to 60kg batch


Ioc r d biodiesel pilot plant

IOC R&D BIODIESEL PILOT-PLANT


Biodiesel why lower emissions

BIODIESEL-Why Lower Emissions ?

  • Biodiesel has high cetane

  • In built Oxygen content

  • Burns fully

  • Has no Sulphur

  • No Aromatics

  • Complete CO2 cycle


Biodiesel an alternate fuel

Emissions Reductions

B20 emissions reductions compared topetroleum diesel:

– Carbon monoxide -20%

– Unburned hydrocarbons -30%

– Particulate matter -22%

– Sulfates -20%

– NPAH -50%

– Mutagenicity -20%


Environmental concerns

Environmental Concerns

Emissions by combustion engine (100B)


Biodiesel an alternate fuel

PETRO-DIESEL CO2 CYCLE

13 pounds of fossil CO2 released per gallon burned

Fossil CO2

Release to Atmosphere

Refining

Use in Cars and Trucks

Exploration


Biodiesel an alternate fuel

BIODIESEL CO2 CYCLE

No fossil CO2 Released ; No global warming

Renewable CO2

Use in Cars and Trucks

Oil Crops

Biodiesel Production


Bus powered alternative fuels

BUS POWERED ALTERNATIVE FUELS


Wide acceptance

WIDE ACCEPTANCE

  • By diesel vehicle industry

    Audi BMWCaseClaas

    DeutzIsekiJohn DeereKubota

    Massey-FergusonMercedes-BenzNissan

    PuegotRenaultSameSeat

    SkodaSteyrValmetVolkswagen

    Volvo

  • By the fuel trade; e.g, ELF, Texaco, Shell, Total

  • By the end-user – bus companies, taxi fleets, forestry enterprises,railroad, boat owners

  • A total of 128 production sites (capacity 500-120,000 tons/annum)


Lubricity major benefit

LUBRICITY-Major Benefit

LONG TERM ENGINE WEAR EXTENSIVELY STUDIED IN EUROPE & THE US

EXXON STUDY

B20 PROVIDE, SIGNIFICANT, QUANTIFIABLE IMPROVEMENTS IN WEAR

FILM FORMING ABILITY – 93% FILM (B20); 32% FILM (DIESEL)

EPA RULE (JAN. 2001) TO BRING DOWN SULFUR CONTENT IN DIESEL FROM 500 ppm TO 15 ppm BY 2006

“LUBRICITY TEST HAVE SHOWN THAT UPTO 2% OF BIODIESEL IS ENOUGH TO MAKE ANY DISTILLATE FUEL FULLY LUBRICIOUS”;


Fuel consumption

FUEL CONSUMPTION

  • Biodiesel contains ~10% oxygen

  • Brake-specific fuel consumption figures

    • Petrodiesel0.43 lb/HP-hr

    • B20 0.44 “

    • B100 0.50 “


Biodiesel is reality now

BIODIESEL IS REALITY NOW

  • Large number of surveys done

  • Variety of feed stocks tested

  • Transesterification developed on commercial scale

  • Biodiesel specs. By ASTM & others

  • About 40 million mile testing

  • Approval by auto OEM’s

  • Tax structure in place in several countries

  • Future projections firmed up

  • Legalisations in place in many countries

  • INDIA HAS TROPICAL ADVANTAGE

  • ENORMOUS WASTE LANDS & CHEAP FARM LABOUR

  • BIODIESEL IN INDIA CAN BE SUCCESS STORY


Us railroad biodiesel

US RAILROAD BIODIESEL

  • Sierra Railroad in California, oldest company

  • First to use biodiesel as fuel

  • 1500 locos to be converted

  • Need 30 million gallon of Biofuels/Year

  • 3.5 lac acres of land farm

  • 3000 additional jobs

  • Shall meet EPA norms for 2006


Rail road test program on biodiesel 1999

RAIL ROAD TEST PROGRAM ON BIODIESEL (1999)

  • 4000 HP (2984 KW) gas turbine powered passenger locomotive

  • Several Biofuels tested (REE, SME, etc.)

  • Turbine maintenance cost compared

  • Energy content, compatibilities, emission, cost compared to diesel

  • Emission data studies

  • Cost/Km/Unit energy (power) calculated

  • Biodiesel holds future in railroad applications

  • Remarkable reduction in emission ; Report at www.nrbp.org


Biodiesel and economy

BIODIESEL AND ECONOMY

  • An increase of $1 per barrel of crude oil prices adds $425 million to our oil import bill

  • Oil import constitutes a major part of our trade deficit and has an enormous impact on our economy and creation of new jobs

  • The US dept of Energy estimates that each $billion of trade deficit costs the US 27,000 jobs

  • Developing a strong market for biodiesel would have tremendous economic benefits

  • Investments in biodiesel technology may ensure that we have transportation fuel options and we will not be so vulnerable


The indian scene

THE INDIAN SCENE

  • Annual growth rate ~6% compared to world average of 2%

  • Oil pool deficit & Subsidies Rs 16,000 crores , Rs 18,440 crores (1996-97)

  • Current per capita usage of petroleum is absymmaly low (0.1 ton/year) against 4.0 in Germany or 1.5 tons in Malaysia

  • Even Malaysia’s figure would be beyond our paying capacity

  • Our domestic production would meet only 33% of demand at the end of 10th plan and only 27% by 2010-11

  • INVESTMENT IN BIOFUELS MAKE STRONG ECONOMIC SENSE


Can biodiesel work in india

CAN BIODIESEL WORK IN INDIA?

  • India with just 2.4% of global area supports more than 16% of the human population and 17% of the cattle population

  • India is one of the largest importers of edible oil

  • Where do we find the oil for biodiesel?

  • A sustainable source of vegetable oil is to be found before we can think of biodiesel


Jatropha may be the answer

JATROPHA MAY BE THE ANSWER?

  • According to the Economic Survey (1995-96), Govt of India, of the cultivable land area about 100-150 million hectares are classified as waste or degraded land

  • Jatropha (Jatropha curcas, Ratanjyot, wild castor) thrives on any type of soil

    • Needs minimal inputs or management

    • Has no insect ,pests& not browsed by cattle or sheep

    • Can survive long periods of drought

    • Propagation is easy

    • Yield from the 3rd year onwards and continues for 25-30 years

    • 25% oil from seeds by expelling; 30% by solvent extraction

    • The meal after extraction an excellent organic manure (38% protein, N:P:K ratio 2.7:1.2:1)


Jatropha plantation

Jatropha Plantation

Study by Agro-Forestry Federation – Maharashtra (1991)

  • Jatropha is a hardy plant.

  • Well adopted to arid, semi-arid conditions.

  • Low fertility and moisture demand.

  • Grow on stony, shallow or even calcareous soil.

  • Propagated through seed or cuttings.

  • Tolerate to scanty to heavy rainfall.


Jatropha plantation1

Jatropha Plantation

  • 5-6Kg seed / hectare, 2500 plants / hectare

  • EXPECTED YIELDS


Biodiesel from jatropha

BIODIESEL FROM JATROPHA

  • IF

    • 10 MILLION HECATRES OF WASTE LAND IS BROUGHT UNDER JATROPHA CULTIVATION

    • Can yield 15 million tons of seed (@1.5 Tons / Hectare )

    • 4.0 million tons of oil

    • An equivalent amount of biodiesel, almost one tenth requirement of diesel in the country

    • Enormous employment generation potential in rural areas

      • If only 1 person/family is employed per 5 hectares for jatropha cultivation, additional 2 million new jobs

      • 200 new extraction units of 250 tpd capacity to crush the seeds

    • 11 Million tons of excellent organic manure

    • 0.4 million tons of technical grade glycerol


Effect on rural economy

Effect on Rural Economy

  • Seed price Rs. 4/Kg.

  • Seed yield 3000Kg / hectare.

  • 5 hectare plantation / family.

  • 60,000 Rs / year income.

    Additionally :

  • Waste lands converted to productive national assets.

  • Creation of jobs in downstream processing.

  • GAINFUL employment in rural sector.

  • Contribution to national energy pool.


Indian initiative on biodiesel

INDIAN INITIATIVE ON BIODIESEL

  • Indian Govt. has taken a serious note of Biodiesel

  • Planning Commission has set up committees on ;

  • Product development

  • Engine studies

  • Legal regulations

  • Plantations

  • Specifications

  • Marketing

  • Environmental issues

    REPORT PRESENTED


Why biodiesel important for railways

WHY BIODIESEL IMPORTANT FOR RAILWAYS

  • Indian Rail has very large available land

  • Bodiesel will help Railways to :

    • * Improve upon emission norms

    • * Eventually reduce diesel cost

      * Contribute to Environment protection


Biodiesel indian railways actions taken

BIODIESEL-INDIAN RAILWAYSACTIONS TAKEN

  • Presentations given to

  • RDSO

  • Railway Board

  • Hon’able MR

  • Task force Setup

    Indianoil as partner in development – testing –supply

    PARTNERSHIP OF NATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE


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