Paraphrasing in the body of your essay
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Paraphrasing in the Body of Your Essay. To incorporate material from sources into your essay, you paraphrase the source , or you quote the source. What is paraphrasing?. Paraphrasing is ______________ ______________________________________________________ Should you cite your source?.

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Paraphrasing in the Body of Your Essay

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Paraphrasing in the body of your essay

Paraphrasing in the Body of Your Essay

To incorporate material from sources into your essay, you paraphrase the source, or you quote the source.


What is paraphrasing

What is paraphrasing?

Paraphrasing is ______________ ______________________________________________________

Should you cite your source?


Keep in mind

Keep in mind…

When you paraphrase, you change the language of the source into ________________.

Do not change a few words; change the _________________ __________________________!


Example

Example

Original quote:

“Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes” (Lester 46).

Paraphrase:

In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46).

Work Cited

Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. Print.


When using a paraphrase

When using a paraphrase…

  • You must

    • ____________ your paraphrase: Tell who said it, what is going on in the story, etc.

    • ____________ your paraphrase: Change the wording, sentence structure, and tone of the original passage

    • ____________ your paraphrase: Explain how this information proves your thesis


Example1

Example

Paraphrase with 3 I’s:

According to James D. Lester, author of Writing Research Papers,in research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (46).Therefore, when students write their essays, they should paraphrase as often as possible and only use quotations when necessary. Then their work becomes more authentic.

Work Cited

Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. Print.

__________

___________

_________


Notice

Notice

Since the author’s name is included in the paraphrase, you do not need the full in-text citation, only the page number.

The passage __________________ ____________________; it reads like a complete, correct sentence.

The paraphrase is ___________,not patched on and left for the reader to figure out what it means.


When should i paraphrase

When should I paraphrase?

Paraphrasing is useful in ________________________ (introduction or conclusion) or when the author's ____________ ____________________.


Helpful verbs when quoting or paraphrasing

Helpful Verbs When Quoting or Paraphrasing

Remember, many verbs can be used to introduce quotes and paraphrases. For example: __________________________ __________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.


Paraphrasing in the body of your essay

Now that I have included my paraphrase into my text, how do I let the reader know the source where I got the ideas or information?


A road map for the reader

A Road Map for the Reader

You must properly direct your reader to your Work Cited page with a __________________________!

This citation will tell your reader exactly where to go on your ____________ page to find the source of this quote.

The Work Cited page, in turn, directs your reader to the _________.


Aka parenthetical citation

__________________ (aka) Parenthetical Citation

In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what's known as _________________________. Immediately following a quotation from a source or a paraphrase of a source's ideas, you place the author's name followed by a space and the relevant page number(s)

Example:

Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" __________

Use the same form of citation for a paraphrase


Paraphrasing in the body of your essay

When a source has no known author, use a ________________________ instead of an author name. Place the “title” in quotation marks if it's a short work, or italicize or underline it if it is a longer work


Paraphrasing in the body of your essay

If you indicate the author of the material you are paraphrasing or quoting, you do not have to reflect his or her name in the parentheses, only the page number.

EXAMPLE:

According to James D. Lester, author of Writing Research Papers,in research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim______

Work Cited

Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. Print.


Human beings have been described as symbol using animals burke 3

Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).

Your in-text citation or parenthetical citation will correspond with an entry in your Works Cited page, which, for the Burke citation above, will look something like this:

Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action:

Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: U of California P, 1966. Print.


Last words of advice

Last Words of Advice

Use paraphrases that best support your ______.

Use the ______________ of your paraphrase to connect back to and give support to your thesis.

Remember a citation is a road map for your reader. You must give your reader (in this case your teacher) sound directions or the reader may get lost.


Work cited

Work Cited

The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. 26 Aug. 2005. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.


Paraphrasing practice

Paraphrasing Practice

Directions: Create a details statement and 3 mini-paragraphs to correspond with the following introductory paragraph.

*Optional Challenge: Build the entire mini-essay by incorporating transitions and a conclusion.


Introduction

Introduction

The role and importance of the arts in schools exists at the heart of American educational debate. Proponents of the arts argue that art education is necessary for the development of well-rounded students. Others hold the opinion that educators should primarily focus on raising standardized test scores in core subjects, such as reading and math. Though standardized testing sits squarely under the political microscope of today's society, an education in the arts provides lasting and immeasurable benefits.

_________

_________

_________

_________

_________

_________

_________

_______


The process

The Process…

Read the information / reasons for support that will make up each mini-body paragraph.

Compose a details statement that encompasses each reason for support in the order it is presented.

Paraphrase information in mini-paragraphs. Be sure to introduce, incorporate, interpret and cite the information within each mini-body paragraph.

Submit details statement and mini-paragraphs as one document to turnitin.com under “Paraphrase Practice” assignment.


When you paraphrase remember to

When you paraphrase, remember to:

___________ your paraphrase

___________ your paraphrase: Change the wording, sentence structure, and tone of the original passage

___________ your paraphrase: Explain how this information proves your thesis

Use in-text/parenthetical citations to cite the paraphrased information in each mini-body paragraph.


Works cited

Works Cited

"Arts Education: Creating Student Success In School, Work, and Life." Americans for the Arts Action Fund. National Art Education Association, 1 March 2010. Web. 18 August 2010.

Pogrebin, Robin. "Book Tackles Old Debate: Role of Art in Schools." Arts & Design. The New York Times Company, 4 August 2007. Web. 19 August 2010.


Reason 1 mini body paragraph 1

Reason 1- (mini-body paragraph 1)

"As this country works to strengthen our foothold in the 21st Century global economy, the arts equip students with a creative, competitive edge. To succeed in today's economy of ideas, students must masterfully use words, images, sounds, and movement to communicate. The arts provide the skills and knowledge students need to develop the creativity and determination necessary for success in today's global information age" ("Arts Education: Creating Student Success In School, Work, and Life").

Paraphrase this quote. Remember to INTRODUCE, INCORPORATE, AND INTERPRET.


Reason 2 mini body paragraph 2

Reason 2- (mini-body paragraph 2)

“Edward Pauly, the director of research and evaluation at the Wallace Foundation, which finances arts education, said that the arts can promote experiences of empathy and tolerance. ‘There is no substitute for listening to jazz, seeing Death of a Salesman performed, reading To Kill a Mockingbird, seeing the Vietnam War Memorial,' he said. 'Those powerful experiences only come about through the arts’” (Pogrebin).

Paraphrase this quote. Remember to INTRODUCE, INCORPORATE, AND INTERPRET.


Reason 3 mini body paragraph 3

Reason 3- (mini-body paragraph 3)

"The arts make a tremendous impact on the developmental growth of every child, leveling the 'learning field' across socio-economic boundaries. The arts reach students not otherwise engaged, uniquely bridging the broad spectrum of learning styles. [...] Students who participate in the arts outperform those who do not on virtually every measure. Researchers found that sustained learning in music and theater correlate to greater success in math and reading [...]" ("Arts Education: Creating Student Success In School, Work, and Life").

Paraphrase this quote. Remember to INTRODUCE, INCORPORATE, AND INTERPRET.


Make sure to

Make sure to…

Submit your details statement and paraphrased mini-body paragraphs as one document on Turnitin.com under “Paraphrase Practice.”

It is always a good idea to have a paper copy to turn in to class on the due date.


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