Blood

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. Blood transports nutrients, wastes and body heat from one part of the body to another.. Composition of Blood. Blood is a fluid tissue (complex connective tissue). It has solid and liquid components.. Physical Characteristics of Blood. Opaque, stickyMetallic tasteSaltyScarlet (lots of oxygen),

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1. Chapter 10 Blood

2. Blood transports nutrients, wastes and body heat from one part of the body to another.

3. Composition of Blood Blood is a fluid tissue (complex connective tissue). It has solid and liquid components.

4. Physical Characteristics of Blood Opaque, sticky Metallic taste Salty Scarlet (lots of oxygen), Dull Red (low oxygen) Viscous (5 X water) Alkaline pH 7.35-7.45

5. Temperature 38 C or 100.4 F 8% of body weight Volume in males is 5 to 6 liters

6. Components of Blood Plasma – non-living fluid matrix Formed elements – living blood cells

7. Percent Composition of Blood 45% Erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells < 1% Leukocytes or WBC and Platelets 55% Plasma

8. Plasma The liquid part of the blood Straw colored fluid 100’s of substances are dissolved in it (nutrients, metal ions, salts, respiratory gases, hormones, plasma proteins, various wastes and products of cell metabolism)

9. The Three Plasma Proteins Albumin – contributes to the osmotic pressure of blood, keeps water in the blood stream Clotting Proteins – cut down on blood loss Antibodies – protection from pathogens - The composition of blood is kept constant by homeostatic mechanisms

10. Formed Elements – Three Kinds – Blood Cells

11. 1. Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) or RBC’s Bring oxygen to all body cells Flattened discs with depressed centers, increases surface area Outnumber white blood cells 1000 to 1 Make blood viscous Contain hemoglobin – an iron containing protein that transports oxygen

12. Anemia Occurs when there is a decrease in the oxygen carrying ability of blood Decrease in RBC or RBC’s with deficient hemoglobin content

13. Sickle Cell Anemia Red blood cells are sickle shaped and clog up in small blood vessels Decrease in oxygen delivery Causes pain Caused by one change in an amino acid Offers a resistance to malaria

15. Polycythemia Abnormal increase in RBC Causes: bone marrow cancer, high attitudes Problem: blood to viscous – impairs circulation

16. 2. Leukocytes or White Blood Cells or WBC’s Crucial to the bodies defense against disease Protective moveable army that helps defend the body against damage by bacteria, parasites, viruses and tumor cells Move by ameboid movement

17. There are two types of WBC Groups based on visible granules or not Granulocytes Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Agranulocytes Lymphocytes Monocytes

20. Leukemia When the bone marrow becomes cancerous and makes lots of WBC The WBC do not develop and do not prey on disease good

21. 3. Platelets Needed for clotting

22. Hematopoiesis The process of blood cell formation occurs in: Red Bone Marrow (flat bones of skull, pelvis, ribs, sternum, humerus, femur) All of the formed elements arise from a common type of stem cell called a hemocytoblast, which is in the red bone marrow

24. Hemocytoblast Lymphoid Stem Cell Myeloid Stem Cell Lymphocytes (WBC) other WBC’s RBC’s Platletes

25. Erythoproteins Control the rate of production and which types of cells are produced.

27. Hemostasis Stoppage of blood flow or clotting

28. Blood Clots in 3 Stages: When a blood vessel is damaged platelets and RBC spill into the damaged tissues Platelets increase in number and begin to attach to damaged surfaces. Strands of a protein called fibrin are formed. Blood cells, platelets and strands of fibrin become enmeshed in a fibrous tangle called a clot.

30. Disorders of Hemostasis Undesirable Clotting – forms in intact blood vessels especially the legs Thrombus – clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel

31. Thrombus Types Coronary thrombosis – forms in the blood vessels serving the heart muscle and a fatal heart attack Embolus – thrombus that breaks away from the vessel wall and floats freely into the blood stream

32. 2. Bleeding Disorders Thrombocytopenia – insufficient number of circulating platelets – normal movements can cause spontaneous bleeding Hemophilia – genetic – caused by a lack of any of the factors needed for clotting – blood does not clot

33. Blood Groups and Transfusions Loss of 15-30% leads to pallor and weakness. 30% or more causes severe shock and can be fatal

34. Human Blood Groups Cell membrane of a RBC has genetically determined proteins (antigens) which ID a person. Antigen – substances that the body recognizes as foreign – stimulates an immune response

35. Antibodies – recognize antigens as foreign

36. Agglutination Binding of antibodies to antigens Causes RBC to clump Clogs blood vessels RBC’s lyse and release their hemoglobin (no oxygen) Results – kidney failure, fever, chills. Nausea, vomiting

38. There are 30 common RBC antigens. The main ones: Antigens of A, B, O and Rh

39. ABO Blood Groups Table 10.2 pg 306 If you have type A blood your body forms Anti B antibodies

40. If you have type B blood your body forms Anti-A antibodies.

41. If you have type O blood your body forms Anti- A and Anti-B antibodies. Type O – Universal donor

42. If you have type AB blood your body forms no antibodies Type AB universal recipient

44. Rh Blood Groups People are either Rh+ and have the Rh anitgen or they are Rh- and then they do not have the Rh antigen.

45. 85% of people are Rh+ Antibodies are formed when the wrong blood is added. Rh antibodies are produced by Rh- people who come in contact with Rh+ blood. RBC’s that are Rh+ are attacked and destroyed.

46. Rh Factor and Pregnancy Rh- female pregnant with an Rh+ kid Baby is born healthy but mom begins to make Anti-Rh+ antibodies 2nd Rh+ kid – her antibodies will go through the placenta and destroy the babies RBC’s

47. Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Babies RBC’s are destroyed – baby is anemic and hypoxic Brain damage and death results if the baby does not get transfusions.

49. Blood Typing Blood is tested by mixing it with two different types of immune serums – Anti A and Anti B.

50. Agglutination happens when: Type A is mixed with Anti-A but not Anti-B Type B is mixed with Anti-B but not Anti-A Figure 10.7 pg 308

51. The End

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