. Blood transports nutrients, wastes and body heat from one part of the body to another.. Composition of Blood. Blood is a fluid tissue (complex connective tissue). It has solid and liquid components.. Physical Characteristics of Blood. Opaque, stickyMetallic tasteSaltyScarlet (lots of oxygen),
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1. Chapter 10 Blood
2. Blood transports nutrients, wastes and body heat from one part of the body to another.
3. Composition of Blood Blood is a fluid tissue (complex connective tissue). It has solid and liquid components.
4. Physical Characteristics of Blood Opaque, sticky
Scarlet (lots of oxygen), Dull Red (low oxygen)
Viscous (5 X water)
Alkaline pH 7.35-7.45
5. Temperature 38 C or 100.4 F
8% of body weight
Volume in males is 5 to 6 liters
6. Components of Blood Plasma – non-living fluid matrix
Formed elements – living blood cells
7. Percent Composition of Blood 45% Erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells
< 1% Leukocytes or WBC and Platelets
8. Plasma The liquid part of the blood
Straw colored fluid
100’s of substances are dissolved in it (nutrients, metal ions, salts, respiratory gases, hormones, plasma proteins, various wastes and products of cell metabolism)
9. The Three Plasma Proteins Albumin – contributes to the osmotic pressure of blood, keeps water in the blood stream
Clotting Proteins – cut down on blood loss
Antibodies – protection from pathogens
- The composition of blood is kept constant by homeostatic mechanisms
10. Formed Elements – Three Kinds – Blood Cells
11. 1. Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) or RBC’s Bring oxygen to all body cells
Flattened discs with depressed centers, increases surface area
Outnumber white blood cells 1000 to 1
Make blood viscous
Contain hemoglobin – an iron containing protein that transports oxygen
12. Anemia Occurs when there is a decrease in the oxygen carrying ability of blood
Decrease in RBC or RBC’s with deficient hemoglobin content
13. Sickle Cell Anemia Red blood cells are sickle shaped and clog up in small blood vessels
Decrease in oxygen delivery
Caused by one change in an amino acid
Offers a resistance to malaria
15. Polycythemia Abnormal increase in RBC
Causes: bone marrow cancer, high attitudes
Problem: blood to viscous – impairs circulation
16. 2. Leukocytes or White Blood Cells or WBC’s Crucial to the bodies defense against disease
Protective moveable army that helps defend the body against damage by bacteria, parasites, viruses and tumor cells
Move by ameboid movement
17. There are two types of WBC Groups based on visible granules or not
20. Leukemia When the bone marrow becomes cancerous and makes lots of WBC
The WBC do not develop and do not prey on disease good
21. 3. Platelets Needed for clotting
22. Hematopoiesis The process of blood cell formation occurs in: Red Bone Marrow (flat bones of skull, pelvis, ribs, sternum, humerus, femur)
All of the formed elements arise from a common type of stem cell called a hemocytoblast, which is in the red bone marrow
Lymphoid Stem Cell Myeloid Stem Cell
Lymphocytes (WBC) other WBC’s
25. Erythoproteins Control the rate of production and which types of cells are produced.
27. Hemostasis Stoppage of blood flow or clotting
28. Blood Clots in 3 Stages: When a blood vessel is damaged platelets and RBC spill into the damaged tissues
Platelets increase in number and begin to attach to damaged surfaces. Strands of a protein called fibrin are formed.
Blood cells, platelets and strands of fibrin become enmeshed in a fibrous tangle called a clot.
30. Disorders of Hemostasis Undesirable Clotting – forms in intact blood vessels especially the legs
Thrombus – clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel
31. Thrombus Types Coronary thrombosis – forms in the blood vessels serving the heart muscle and a fatal heart attack
Embolus – thrombus that breaks away from the vessel wall and floats freely into the blood stream
32. 2. Bleeding Disorders Thrombocytopenia – insufficient number of circulating platelets – normal movements can cause spontaneous bleeding
Hemophilia – genetic – caused by a lack of any of the factors needed for clotting – blood does not clot
33. Blood Groups and Transfusions Loss of 15-30% leads to pallor and weakness.
30% or more causes severe shock and can be fatal
34. Human Blood Groups Cell membrane of a RBC has genetically determined proteins (antigens) which ID a person.
Antigen – substances that the body recognizes as foreign – stimulates an immune response
35. Antibodies – recognize antigens as foreign
36. Agglutination Binding of antibodies to antigens
Causes RBC to clump
Clogs blood vessels
RBC’s lyse and release their hemoglobin (no oxygen)
Results – kidney failure, fever, chills. Nausea, vomiting
38. There are 30 common RBC antigens.
The main ones: Antigens of A, B, O and Rh
39. ABO Blood Groups Table 10.2 pg 306
If you have type A blood your body forms Anti B antibodies
40. If you have type B blood your body forms Anti-A antibodies.
41. If you have type O blood your body forms Anti- A and Anti-B antibodies.
Type O – Universal donor
42. If you have type AB blood your body forms no antibodies
Type AB universal recipient
44. Rh Blood Groups People are either Rh+ and have the Rh anitgen or they are Rh- and then they do not have the Rh antigen.
45. 85% of people are Rh+
Antibodies are formed when the wrong blood is added.
Rh antibodies are produced by Rh- people who come in contact with Rh+ blood. RBC’s that are Rh+ are attacked and destroyed.
46. Rh Factor and Pregnancy Rh- female pregnant with an Rh+ kid
Baby is born healthy but mom begins to make Anti-Rh+ antibodies
2nd Rh+ kid – her antibodies will go through the placenta and destroy the babies RBC’s
47. Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Babies RBC’s are destroyed – baby is anemic and hypoxic
Brain damage and death results if the baby does not get transfusions.
49. Blood Typing Blood is tested by mixing it with two different types of immune serums – Anti A and Anti B.
50. Agglutination happens when: Type A is mixed with Anti-A but not Anti-B
Type B is mixed with Anti-B but not Anti-A
Figure 10.7 pg 308
51. The End