Residential hot water use monitoring field study
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Residential Hot Water Use Monitoring Field Study. Presented by: Doug Cane Caneta Research Inc./Caneta Energy (Research sponsored by Union Gas) Presented at: CMX-CIPHEX 2012 March 22 nd , 2012. Caneta Research Inc.(Caneta Energy). Caneta services :

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Residential Hot Water Use Monitoring Field Study

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Residential hot water use monitoring field study

Residential Hot Water Use Monitoring Field Study

Presented by: Doug Cane

Caneta Research Inc./Caneta Energy

(Research sponsored by Union Gas)

Presented at: CMX-CIPHEX 2012

March 22nd, 2012


Caneta research inc caneta energy

Caneta Research Inc.(Caneta Energy)

  • Caneta services :

    • engineering research and analysis, monitoring and management services.

    • energy consulting and code compliance modelling services to owners and design teams for new buildings.

    • www.canetaenergy.com


Background

Background

  • Caneta was contracted by Union Gas to perform a field study to measure residential hot water use.

  • Goal was to determine variables that affect Domestic Hot Water (DHW) use, and determine DHW use patterns.

  • Study participants were from 3 areas in Ontario within Union Gas territory (Hamilton, London, and Sudbury).

  • Monitored water heaters for 2 week periods between 14th August, 2009, ending October 22nd, 2009.

  • Monitoring equipment provided by NRCan.


Monitoring equipment

Monitoring Equipment

13 Kits Consisting of:

  • Data logger: set to record DHW volume every 4 seconds

  • Pulse output flow meter

  • Custom power supply for flow meter

  • Electric Pulse Input Interface

  • Surge protector

    Installed in 37 Homes

    • 16 in Hamilton

    • 11 in London

    • 10 in Sudbury

    • Of these, 1 site had unusable data, 3 others had errors


Homeowner survey

Homeowner Survey

  • Each homeowner filled out a survey characterizing their home and how they use hot water

  • Survey fields included: occupancy patterns, types of occupants, number and type of fixtures/appliances, frequency of fixture/appliance use, and house characteristics

Example of Survey Results


Summary of data draw volume

Summary of Data – Draw Volume

  • Average daily draw volume for a typical year is 199 Liters (site average 197 Liters per day)

  • Equates to 63 Liters per person per day


Data summary draw volume

Data Summary - Draw Volume

Draw Volume per Home per Day (L/day) by Number of Occupants:


Data summary draw volume1

Data Summary - Draw Volume

Draw Volume per Person per Day (L/person/day) by Number of Occupants:


Data summary draw volume2

Data Summary - Draw Volume

Draw Volume per Person per Day (L/person/day) by Location:


Data summary draw volume3

Data Summary - Draw Volume

Draw Volume per Person per Day (L/person/day) by Tank Size:


Summary draw frequency

Summary– Draw Frequency

  • Short small draws accounted for a large number of DHW draws

  • Potential issue with some data not being real draws (phantom draw)

  • Average of 103 draws per day including phantom draws, and 73.9 draws per day excluding phantom draws

  • Phantom draws account for an average of 0.93 Liters per day, which is insignificant

  • Average home draws hot water for 44.5 minutes per day including phantom draws, and 44.2 minutes per day excluding phantom draws


Data summary draw frequency

Data Summary - Draw Frequency

Average Number of Draws per Home by City:

* Data used for this plot includes phantom draws


Data summary draw frequency1

Data Summary - Draw Frequency

Average Number of Draws per Person by City:

* Data used for this plot includes phantom draws


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • A typical daily draw volume is 199 Liters, or 63 Liters per person per day

  • A typical water heater will experience 73 draws during one day

  • On-demand and storage water heaters have similar use patterns


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