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# Comparative Scaling - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Comparative Scaling. Some Key Concepts. Measurement Assigning numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects being measured, according to predetermined rules. Concept (or Construct) A generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes.

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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Comparative Scaling' - cora

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Presentation Transcript

### Comparative Scaling

• Measurement

• Assigning numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects being measured, according to predetermined rules.

• Concept (or Construct)

• A generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes.

• Relatively concrete constructs

• Age, gender, number of children, education, income

• Relatively abstract constructs

• Brand loyalty, personality, channel power, satisfaction

• Scaling

• The generation of a continuum upon which measured objects are located.

• Scale

• A quantifying measure – a combination of items that is progressively arranged according to value or magnitude.

• Purpose is to quantitatively represent an item’s, person’s, or event’s place in the scaling continuum.

Primary Scales of Measurement

Primary

Scales

Nominal

Scale

Ratio

Scale

Ordinal

Scale

Interval

Scale

• Nominal

• A scale in which the numbers or letters assigned to objects serve as labels for identification or classification.

• Ordinal

• A scale that arranges objects or alternatives according to their magnitude in an ordered relationship.

• Interval

• A scale that both arranges objects according to their magnitudes and

• Distinguishes the ordered arrangement in units of equal intervals

• I.e., indicate order and measure order (or distance) in units of equal intervals

• Ratio

• A scale that has absolute rather than relative quantities and an absolute zero where a given attribute is absent.

• Money & weight are good examples of attributes that possess absolute zeros and interval properties.

Primary Scales of Measurement

Scale

NominalNumbers

Assigned 1 31 8

to Drivers/Cars

OrdinalRank Order Third Second First

of race finishers Place Place Place

Interval Championship

Points earned 170 175 185

Ratio Time to Finish,

behind winner 5.1 2.3 0.0

• Comparative Scales

• Involve the direct comparison of two or more objects

• Noncomparative Scales

• Objects or stimuli are scaled independently of each other.

Classifying Scaling Techniques

Scaling

Techniques

Noncomparative

Scales

Comparative

Scales

Itemized

Rating Scales

Continuous

Rating Scales

Paired

Comparison

Constant

Sum

Rank

Order

Likert

Stapel

Semantic

Differential

• Respondent is presented with two objects at a time

• Then asked to select one object in the pair according to some criterion

• Data obtained are ordinal in nature

• Arranged or ranked in order of magnitude

• Easy to do if only a few items are compared.

• If number of comparisons is too large, respondents may become fatigued and no longer carefully discriminate among them.

For each pair of professors, please indicate the professor from whom you prefer to take classes with a 1.

• Respondents are presented with several objects simultaneously

• Then asked to order or rank them according to some criterion.

• Data obtained are ordinal in nature

• Arranged or ranked in order of magnitude

• Commonly used to measure preferences among brands and brand attributes

Please rank the instructors listed below in order of preference. For the instructor you prefer the most, assign a “1”, assign a “2” to the instructor you prefer the 2nd most, assign a “3” to the instructor that you prefer 3rd most, and assign a “4” to the instructor that you prefer the least.

• Respondents are asked to allocate a constant sum of units among a set of stimulus objects with respect to some criterion

• Units allocated represent the importance attached to the objects.

• Data obtained are interval in nature

• Allows for fine discrimination among alternatives

Listed below are 4 marketing professors, as well as 3 aspects that students typically find important. For each aspect, please assign a number that reflects how well you believe each instructor performs on the aspect. Higher numbers represent higher scores. The total of all the instructors’ scores on an aspect should equal 100.

### Non-Comparative Scaling

Classifying Noncomparative Scaling Techniques

Noncomparative

Rating Scales

Continuous

Rating Scales

Itemized

Rating Scales

Semantic

Differential

Stapel

Likert

Very

Poor

Very

Good

X

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Method of Summated Ratings: ScalesThe Likert Scale

• Extremely popular means for measuring attitudes.

• Respondents indicate their own attitudes by checking how strongly they agree/disagree with statements.

• Response alternatives:

• “strongly agree”, “agree”, “uncertain”, “disagree”, and “strongly disagree”.

• Generally use either a 5- or 7-point scale

• A series of numbered (usually seven-point) bipolar rating scales.

• Bipolar adjectives (for example, “good” and “bad”), anchor both ends (or poles) of the scale.

• A weight is assigned to each position on the rating scale.

• Traditionally, scores are 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3.

Exciting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Calm

Interesting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Dull

Simple ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ Complex

Passive ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ Active

Stapel Scales Tennis

• Modern versions of the Stapel scale place a single adjective as a substitute for the semantic differential when it is difficult to create pairs of bipolar adjectives.

• The advantage and disadvantages of a Stapel scale, as well as the results, are very similar to those for a semantic differential.

• However, the Stapel scale tends to be easier to conduct and administer.

A Stapel Scale Tennisfor Measuring a Store’s Image

Department

Store Name

+3

+2

+1

Wide Selection

-1

-2

-3

Graphic Rating Scales Tennis

• A graphic rating scale presents respondents with a graphic continuum.

Graphic Rating Scale Stressing Pictorial Visual Communications

3 2 1

Very Very

Good Poor

Balanced and Unbalanced Scales Communications

Figure 10.4 Balanced and Unbalanced Scales

Balanced Scale

Unbalanced Scale

Surfing the Internet is

____ Extremely Good

____ Very Good

____ Good

Surfing the Internet is

____ Extremely Good

____ Very Good

____ Good

____ Somewhat Good

Figure 10.6 Scale Evaluation Communications

Scale Evaluation

Scale

Evaluation

Validity

Reliability

Content

Test-Retest

Internal

Consistency

Criterion

Alternative

Forms

Construct

Convergent

Validity

Discriminant

Validity

Nomological

Validity

Reliability Communications

• Extent to which a scale produces consistent results

• Test-retest Reliability

• Respondents are administered scales at 2 different times under nearly equivalent conditions

• Alternative-form Reliability

• 2 equivalent forms of a scale are constructed, then tested with the same respondents at 2 different times

Reliability Communications

• Internal Consistency Reliability

• The consistency with which each item represents the construct of interest

• Used to assess the reliability of a summated scale

• Split-half Reliability

• Items constituting the scale divided into 2 halves, and resulting half scores are correlated

• Coefficient alpha (most common test of reliability)

• Average of all possible split-half coefficients resulting from different splittings of the scale items

Validity Communications

• Extent to which true differences among the objects are reflected on the characteristic being measured

• Content Validity

• A.k.a., face validity

• Subjective, but systematic evaluation of the representativeness of the content of a scale for the measuring task at hand

• Criterion Validity

• Examines whether measurement scale performs as expected in relation to other variables selected as meaningful criteria

• I.e., predicted and actual behavior should be similar

Construct Validity Communications

• Addresses the question of what construct or characteristic the scale is actually measuring

• Convergent Validity

• Extent to which scale correlates positively with other measures of the same construct

• Discriminant Validity

• Extent to which a measure does not correlate with other constructs from which it is supposed to differ

• Nomological Validity

• Extent to which scale correlates in theoretically predicted ways with measures of different but related constructs

Relationship Between Reliability and Validity Communications

• A scale can be reliable, but not valid

• In order for a scale to valid, it must also be reliable.

• In other words,

• Reliability is a necessary but insufficient condition for Validity.

Reliability and Validity on Target Communications

Old Rifle New Rifle New Rifle Sunglare

Low Reliability High Reliability Reliable but Not Valid

(Target A) (Target B) (Target C)