Why and how Swiss academic institutions patent and license
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Why and how Swiss academic institutions patent and license. Why patent ? Technology transfer in Switzerland Commercializing an invention. you. competition. Competition. Best product First to market Best salesforce. Exclusivity. Life of a pharmaceutical product. 2000. 2002. 200 4.

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Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Why and how Swiss academic institutions patent and license


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Why patent ?

Technology transfer in Switzerland

Commercializing an invention


Competition

you

competition

Competition

  • Best product

  • First to market

  • Best salesforce

Exclusivity


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Life of a pharmaceutical product

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

2014

2016

2018

2020

2025

800 Mio $

I II III

Discovery

Preclinical

Clinical

Regulatory approval

Sales

Generics


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Life of a pharmaceutical product

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

2014

2016

2018

2020

2025

I II III

Discovery

Preclinical

Clinical

Regulatory approval

Sales

Generics


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Exclusivity

Life of a pharmaceutical product

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

2014

2016

2018

2020

2025

Patents

I II III

Discovery

Preclinical

Clinical

Regulatory approval

Sales

Generics


Patents

Patents

  • Exclusive right granted by a government

  • Limited term (20 years)

  • Obligation to disclose


Advantages of patenting

Advantages of patenting

  • Exclusivity

    - keeps off the competition

    - scares off the competition

    - marketing tool (« Patent pending »)

  • Once patent application has been filed, you don’t need to keep innovation secret anymore.


Disadvantages of patenting

Disadvantages of patenting

  • Costs

  • Not always easy to enforce

  • Disclosure (information used by competition, risk of infringement…)


Commercializing an invention

Commercializing an invention

  • Make an invention

  • Patent the invention

  • Develop a product

  • Sell the product


Academic inventions

  • Make an invention

  • Patent the invention

  • Develop a product

  • Sell the product

University

exploitation rights

Industry

Academic inventions


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Grant of rights

Exclusivity

Life of a pharmaceutical product

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

2014

2016

2018

2020

2025

Patents

I II III

Discovery

Preclinical

Clinical

Regulatory approval

Sales

Generics


Transfer of patent rights

Transfer of patent rights

Material property

Intellectual property

sellassign

rentlicense


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Why commercialize technologies?

Licensing academic technologies allows you to...

... turn the results of your research into useful

products and services that society can benefit from

… put a new spin on your research

... obtain additional funding for your research

... buy a Ferrari


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

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Academic inventions that have

“changed the world”

  • Magnetic Core Memory

  • Cephalosporin C

  • Heart-Lung Machine

  • Polio Vaccine

  • Fluoride Toothpaste

  • Pacemaker

  • Ultrasound

  • Warfarin (coumarin)

  • Seat Belt

  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen

  • Gatorade

  • LCD

  • Hepatitis B Vaccine

  • MRI Scanner

  • Electronic Computer

  • Cisplatin 

  • Recombinant DNA Technology

  • Canine Parvovirus Vaccine

  • Kennel Cough Vaccine

  • Restasis

  • Adenocard

  • Factor IX Gene Product

  • LASER Cataract Surgery

  • Allegra

  • Synthetic Taxol

  • Trusopt

  • Emtriva

  • Combination PET/CT Scanner

  • CAT Scan

  • Saccharin

  • Rocket Fuel

  • Insulin

  • Vitamin D Fortification

  • Concrete Steam Curing

  • Plexiglass

  • Pablum

  • Electron Microscope

  • Drunk-O-Meter

  • Penicillin

  • Pap Smear

  • Blood Preservation

  • Ultrasound

  • Streptomycin

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*


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

World-class research


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

High-impact publications

D.A. King, The scientific impact of nationsNature430, 311 - 316 (2004)


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Swiss strengths in research


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

R&D expenses


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Political message

Excellent research – more innovation!

(Innovation = idea + need + implementation)


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Swiss institutions and their TT offices

ETH Transfer - ETHZ

SRI - EPFL

Unitec - UniGE/HUG

PACTT - UniLA/CHUV

Unitectra - UniZH/UniBE/UniBS/hospitals

Smaller universities, research institutes and applied research universities


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Founded in 2003

Currently over 120 members from over 20 institutions


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Technology Transfer Office (TTO)

  • Assess commercial potential of new technologies

  • Protect intellectual property

  • License material and intellectual property

  • Distribute royalties

  • Negotiate agreements with industry (MTAs, CDAs, collaboration agreements, …)

  • (Manage proof-of-concept funds)

  • (Coach and support spin-offs)


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

IP protection

Marketing

Negotiation

Monitoring

License

Licensing an invention

Invention disclosure

Triage


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Invention Disclosure

1. What’s the invention ?

2. Who are the inventors ?

3. Whom does the technology belong to?

4. Publications ?


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Invention Disclosure

1. What’s the invention ?  Triage

2. Who are the inventors ?

3. Whom does the technology belong to?

4. Publications ?


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Invention Disclosure

1. What’s the invention ?

2. Who are the inventors ?

3. Whom does the technology belong to?

4. Publications ?


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Inventors

Case 1:

Professor says he’s the sole inventor and the postdoc has had no inventive contribution whatsoever.

Case 2:

All 10 authors of the paper are listed as inventors.

The patent is easily invalidated if the inventors list is incorrect


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Invention Disclosure

1. What’s the invention ?

2. Who are the inventors ?

3. Whom does the technology belong to?

4. Publications ?


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Swiss law


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

University law (e.g. Unige)

University law [extract]:

Art. 15 Propriété intellectuelle

1. A l’exception des droits d’auteur sur les publications, l’université est titulaire des droits de propriété intellectuelle portant sur toutes les créations intellectuelles ainsi que les résultats de recherches, y compris les programmes informatiques, obtenus dans l’exercice de leurs fonctions par les personnes ayant une relation de travail avec l’université. Est réservée la cotitularité entre l'université et les Hôpitaux universitaires de Genève des droits de propriété intellectuelle lorsque ces inventions émanent de personnes ayant également une relation de travail avec les Hôpitaux universitaires de Genève.


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Collaboration/MTA with

another university

Collaboration/MTA with a company

Ownership

Postdoc with fellowship

Invited professor

Unpaid diploma student

IP rights might not belong to the institution


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Invention Disclosure

1. What’s the invention ?

2. Who are the inventors ?

3. Whom does the technology belong to?

4. Publications ?


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Patents and publication

Case 1:

Submitted a paper – to be published in less than 2 weeks

Case 2:

Presented data at a conference

Novelty might have been compromised


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Novelty – the Cohen/Boyer case

  • Stanley Cohen (Stanford University)

  • Circular DNA (=plasmids) and their implication in bacterial antibiotics resistance

  • Herbert Boyer (University of California)

  • Proteins involved in bacterial DNA mutations (=restriction enzymes)

  • Invention: how to cut out a piece of DNA, paste it into a plasmid and express it in bacteria (=recombinant DNA)


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Novelty – the Cohen/Boyer case

1) Inventors publish article

2) Stanford OTL learns about the invention in the New York Times.

Disclosure prior to patent filing

Saved by « grace period »  only in the US!

US licensing revenue: $300 Mio ($20Mio per inventor)

Estimated loss: $300 Mio !!!


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Disclosures

  • Problematic:

  • Publication of scientific article

  • Poster

  • Printed abstract

  • Web site

  • Public seminar

  • In principle, OK:

  • Submission of scientific article

  • Grant proposal

  • Departmental seminar


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Patenting doesn’t mean you can’t publish!!!

Patent and publication

Publish or perish

Publish and perish

Date of patent filing must be anterior to date of publication


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

IP protection

Marketing

Negotiation

Monitoring

License

Licensing an invention

Triage


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Triage criteria

  • Commercialization prospects

  • IP situation

  • Inventor profile

  • Technology profile


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Commercialization prospects

Regulatory aspects

Barriers to entry

What’s the product?

Who will use the product?

Is there a market?

Time?

Revenue?

Alternative approaches/direct competitors?

Acceptance barriers?


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Intellectual property situation

Novelty

Application

Inventive step

  • Is it necessary to patent?

  • Is it possible to patent?

Scope of claims

Ease of detecting infringement

Dependence on other patents

  • Is it worth patenting?


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Inventor profile

  • Scientific reputation

  • Team know-how

  • Contacts with industry

  • Motivation


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Technology profile

  • State of development

  • Future developments

  • Complexity


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Triage results

License to spin-off

~1/3

Yes

~9/10

Licence to existing company

Come back later

No


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

IP protection

Marketing

Negotiation

Monitoring

License

Licensing an invention

Evaluation


Claims

Claims

Commercial value of patent: claims

Scope of the claims

as broad as possible

(even if no data to support them… = « prophetic patents »)


Claims prophetic patents

Claims – « prophetic patents »

Experimental result: Glomerulopathy patients have increased expression of HGR57 in urine

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A method of assessing whether an individual has or is at risk for developing a renal disorder comprising the steps of:

a) obtaining a biological sample from the individual;

b) analyzing the sample to determine the presence, absence or amount of one or more biomarkers selected from the group consisting of HGR57, HFR34, NBP1, LN49, LNBP35, ratatine, aubergine, citadine; and

c) assessing from said presence, absence or amount of the one or more biomarkers whether the individual has or is at risk for developing a renal disorder.


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Scope of claims – Celebrex case

Background:

University of Rochester files a patent application for the use of COX-2 inhibitors as an anti-inflammatory drug.

While waiting for the patent to be granted, UR notices that Searle&Co (bought up by Pfizer) is commercializing such an inhibitor under the name Celebrex™ for the treatment of arthritis.


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Scope of claims – Celebrex case

Action:

The day after the patent is granted, UR sues Pfizer for infringement of their patent.

Reaction:

Pfizer holds that UR patent is invalid.

Result:

Pfizer wins and the UR patent is invalidated.


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Scope often restricted during examination procedure

Litigation dangerous if scope is too broad

Portée des revendications


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

50

Unique

40

Cumul.

30

20

10

0

0

12

30

TTO

TTO

X

TTO

Patent costs

K CHF

months


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

IP protection

Marketing

Negotiation

Monitoring

License

Licensing an invention

Evaluation


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Technology marketing

  • Inventors’ contacts

  • Unitec’s contacts

  • Non-confidential technology offers

    - technology data bases

    - partnering meetings

    - focused marketing to specific companies


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

IP protection

Marketing

Negotiation

Monitoring

License

Licensing an invention

Evaluation


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

License agreement

  • Grant of rights to exploit a patent commercially

  • Exclusive / non-exclusive

  • Field of use

  • Territory

  • Term

  • Royalties

  • Warranties/liability

  • Due diligence


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

IP protection

Marketing

Negotiation

Monitoring

License

Licensing an invention

Evaluation


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

License administration

  • License monitoring

  • Collect and redistribute royalties

  • Maintain IP rights

  • Monitor patent infringement

  • Take part in litigation


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

License revenue

Net Revenue

Inventors

Laboratory

University


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Challenges of academic TT

  • Academic researchers think first about publishing before they think about IP

  • Technology is most often very early stage (because researchers have to publish their research before their scientific competitors)

    difficult to recognize commercial potential

     perceived as high risk for industrial partner

    patents hard to defend


Why and how swiss academic institutions patent and license

Academic inventions that have

“changed the world”

  • Magnetic Core Memory

  • Cephalosporin C

  • Heart-Lung Machine

  • Polio Vaccine

  • Fluoride Toothpaste

  • Pacemaker

  • Ultrasound

  • Warfarin (coumarin)

  • Seat Belt

  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen

  • Gatorade

  • LCD

  • Hepatitis B Vaccine

  • MRI Scanner

  • Electronic Computer

  • Cisplatin 

  • Recombinant DNA Technology

  • Canine Parvovirus Vaccine

  • Kennel Cough Vaccine

  • Restasis

  • Adenocard

  • Factor IX Gene Product

  • LASER Cataract Surgery

  • Allegra

  • Synthetic Taxol

  • Trusopt

  • Emtriva

  • Combination PET/CT Scanner

  • CAT Scan

  • Our claim to fame

  • Saccharin

  • Rocket Fuel

  • Insulin

  • Vitamin D Fortification

  • Concrete Steam Curing

  • Plexiglass

  • Pablum

  • Electron Microscope

  • Drunk-O-Meter

  • Penicillin

  • Pap Smear

  • Blood Preservation

  • Ultrasound

  • Streptomycin

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