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The Selective Intermediate Nodes Scheme for Ad Hoc On-Demand Routing Protocols. Yunjung Yi, Mario gerla and Taek Jin Kwon ICC 2002. Outline. Introduction Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics Local load level measurement Reactive protocols with SIN algorithm

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The selective intermediate nodes scheme for ad hoc on demand routing protocols

The Selective Intermediate Nodes Scheme for Ad Hoc On-Demand Routing Protocols

Yunjung Yi, Mario gerla and Taek Jin Kwon

ICC 2002


Outline
Outline Routing Protocols

  • Introduction

  • Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics

    • Local load level measurement

    • Reactive protocols with SIN algorithm

  • Simulation and experiments

    • Simulation Model

    • Simulation Results

  • Conclusion


Introduction
Introduction Routing Protocols

  • The classification of ad hoc routing protocols

    • Proactive routing protocols

      • OSPF

      • OLSR

    • Reactive routing protocols

      • AODV

      • DSR


Introduction1
Introduction Routing Protocols

  • Load aware routing

    • Load-balanced distribution of data traffic over the network.

  • Efficient flooding (EF)

    • Permits only a subset of the network to participate in flooding.

    • Several potential drawbacks


Selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics Routing Protocols

  • Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) scheme

    Retrains a node base on the stress level of the local network and the cluster status.

    • Light Load

    • Moderate

    • Saturated



Selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics2
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics Routing Protocols

  • Accurate measurement of the local load

    • Assume each node uses 802.11 DCF MAC protocol.

    • Classification of channel status of an ad hoc network

      • IDLE、TRANSMITTING、RECEIVING and COLLISION

    • Accumulates the duration in

      • idle_time、 trans_time、 recv_time and coll_time

      • Ex.Idle_time = α * idle_time + (1 – α) * prev_idle_time


Selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics3
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics Routing Protocols

  • Channel utilization

  • Transmission probability


Selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics4
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics Routing Protocols

  • Collision duration


Selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics5
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics Routing Protocols

  • Two algorithms to decide local load level (Li)

    • Simple Algorithm (SMIPLE)

    • Fair-share Algorithm (FS)


Selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics6
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics Routing Protocols

  • SMIPLE

    • Li ← IDLE if Ui < CHANNEL_IDLE_THRESHOLD

    • Li ← SATURATED and

      ClusterStatus← ORDINARY NODE

      if (Ui > Pmax + p) or (Qi > QUEUE_THRESHOLD)

    • Otherwise, Li ← MODERATE


Selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics7
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics Routing Protocols

  • Fair-share Algorithm(FS)

    • Li ← SATURATED and

      ClusterStatus ← ORDINARY NODE

      if (Ui > Pmax + p) or (Qi > QUEUE_THRESHOLD) or (ANi > 2 and TXi > TRANSopt)

    • Optimal transmission probability


Selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics8

D Routing Protocols

Time out

RREQ

RREP

S

Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics

AODV Example


Selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics9
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics Routing Protocols

  • Reactive Protocols with SIN algorithm

    • AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing)

    • When a new RREQ comes in with TTL greater than “0”

      • When the local load level (Li) is

        • IDLE : every node forwards the RREQ

        • MODERATE : only cluster heads and gateways forward RREQ

        • SATURATED : every node stops forwarding


Selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics10

N1-N2 Routing Protocols

N2

N1-N3-N5

N5

N8

N1

N1

N1-N3-N4

N1-N3-N4-N7

N1-N3-N4

N4

N7

N1

N3

N1-N3

N6

N1-N3-N4-N6

N1-N3-N4

Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics

Destination

Source

DSR Example: route request


Selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics11

N2 Routing Protocols

N1-N2-N5-N8

N1-N2-N5-N8

N1-N2-N5-N8

N5

N8

N1

N4

N7

N3

N6

Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics

Destination

Source

DSR Example: route reply


Selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics12
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics Routing Protocols

  • DSR (Dynamic Source Routing)

    • When a new RREQ comes in with TTL greater than “0”

      • The same mechanism in the modification of AODV

    • When Li -> IDLE or Li -> MODRATE and node is a (cluster head or gateway)

      • When a node learns a shorter path than current path to the destination, sends a “gratuitous”reply only

      • An intermediate node initiate the route reply if it already knows the route to the destination


Simulation and experiments
Simulation and experiments Routing Protocols

  • Simulation Model


Simulation and experiments1
Simulation and experiments Routing Protocols

  • Simulation Model


Simulation and experiments2
Simulation and experiments Routing Protocols

  • Simulation Results

    • Testing with Increasing Offered Load


Simulation and experiments3
Simulation and experiments Routing Protocols

  • Simulation Results

    • Testing with Increasing Offered Load


Simulation and experiments4
Simulation and experiments Routing Protocols

  • Simulation Results

    • Testing with Increasing Offered Load


Simulation and experiments5
Simulation and experiments Routing Protocols

  • Simulation Results

    • Testing with Increasing Offered Load


Simulation and experiments6
Simulation and experiments Routing Protocols

  • Simulation Results

    • Testing with Increasing Offered Load


Simulation and experiments7
Simulation and experiments Routing Protocols

  • Simulation Results

    • Testing with Increasing Offered Load


Simulation and experiments8
Simulation and experiments Routing Protocols

  • Simulation Results

    • Testing with Increasing Offered Load


Simulation and experiments9
Simulation and experiments Routing Protocols

  • Simulation Results

    • Testing Scalability and Adaptability with Increasing the Number of Node


Conclusion
Conclusion Routing Protocols

  • Provide two algorithms that decide the saturation point.

  • Proposed Selective Intermediate Nodes scheme that controls the offered load.


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