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Periodic Table. Kelter, Carr, Scott, Chemistry A Wolrd of Choices 1999, page 74. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table. Periodic Patterns. Period # energy level (subtract for d & f) A/B Group # total # of valence e - Column within sublevel block # of e - in sublevel.

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Periodic table

Periodic Table

Kelter, Carr, Scott, Chemistry A Wolrd of Choices 1999, page 74


Electron configurations and the periodic table

Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table


Periodic patterns

Periodic Patterns

  • Period #

    • energy level (subtract for d & f)

  • A/B Group #

    • total # of valence e-

  • Column within sublevel block

    • # of e- in sublevel

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


Periodic patterns1

1st column of s-block

1st Period

s-block

Periodic Patterns

  • Example - Hydrogen

1s1

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


Periodic patterns2

p

s

d (n-1)

f (n-2)

Periodic Patterns

  • Shorthand Configuration

    • Core electrons:

      • Go up one row and over to the Noble Gas.

    • Valence electrons:

      • On the next row, fill in the # of e- in each sublevel.

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


Periodic patterns3

32

Ge

72.61

Periodic Patterns

  • Example -Germanium

[Ar]

4s2

3d10

4p2

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


Stability

Stability

  • Full energy level

  • Full sublevel (s, p, d, f)

  • Half-full sublevel

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


Stability1

Stability

  • Electron Configuration Exceptions

  • Copper

  • EXPECT:[Ar] 4s2 3d9

  • ACTUALLY:[Ar] 4s1 3d10

  • Copper gains stability with a full d-sublevel.

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


Stability2

Stability

  • Electron Configuration Exceptions

  • Chromium

  • EXPECT:[Ar] 4s2 3d4

  • ACTUALLY:[Ar] 4s1 3d5

  • Chromium gains stability with a half-full d-sublevel.

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


Stability3

Stability

  • Ion Formation

    • Atoms gain or lose electrons to become more stable.

    • Isoelectronic with the Noble Gases.

3+

1+

NA

2+

1-

0

3-

2-

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


Stability4

Stability

  • Ion Electron Configuration

    • Write the e- config for the closest Noble Gas

    • EX: Oxygen ion  O2-  Ne

  • O2- 10e- [He] 2s2 2p6

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


Dmitri mendeleev

Dmitri Mendeleev

  • Russian

  • Invented periodic table

  • Organized elements by properties

  • Arranged elements by atomic mass

  • Predicted existence of several unknown elements

  • Element 101

Dmitri Mendeleev


Mendeleev s periodic table

Mendeleev’s Periodic Table


Periodic table

Mendeleev’s Early Periodic Table

TABELLE II

GRUPPE I GRUPPE II GRUPPE III GRUPPE IV GRUPPE V GRUPPE VI GRUPPE VII GRUPPE VIII

___ ___ ___ ___

RH4 RH3 RH2 RH

R2O RO R2O3 RO2 R2O5 RO3 R2O7 RO4

REIHEN

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

H = 1

Li = 7 Be = 9.4 B = 11 C = 12 N = 14 O = 16 F = 19

Na = 23 Mg = 24 Al = 27.3 Si = 28 P = 31 S = 32 Cl = 35.5

K = 39 Ca = 40 __ = 44 Ti = 48 V = 51 Cr = 52 Mn = 55 Fe = 56, Co = 59,

Ni = 59, Cu = 63

(Cu = 63) Zn = 65 __ = 68 __ = 72 As = 75 Se = 78 Br = 80

Rb = 85 Sr = 87 ? Yt = 88 Zr = 90 Nb = 94 Mo = 96 __ = 100 Ru = 104, Rh = 104,

Pd = 106, Ag = 108

(Ag = 108) Cd = 112 In = 113 Sn = 118 Sb = 122 Te = 125 J = 127

Cs = 133 Ba = 137 ? Di = 138 ? Ce = 140 __ __ __ __ __ __ __

( __ ) __ __ __ __ __ __

__ __ ? Er = 178 ? La = 180 Ta = 182 W = 184 __ Os = 195, Ir = 197,

Pt = 198, Au = 199

(Au = 199) Hg = 200 Tl= 204 Pb = 207 Bi = 208 __ __

__ __ __ Th = 231 __ U = 240 __ __ __ __ __

From Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, VIII, Supplementary Volume for 1872, p. 151.


Elements properties are predicted

Elements Properties are Predicted

O’Connor Davis, MacNab, McClellan, CHEMISTRY Experiments and Principles1982, page 119,


Modern periodic table

Modern Periodic Table

  • H.G.J. Moseley

  • Arranged elements by increasing atomic number

  • Killed in WW I at age 28

    (Battle of Gallipoli)

1887 - 1915


Groups of elements

Groups of Elements

1A

8A

1A

5A

Nitrogen group

Alkali metals

H

1

2A

6A

He

2

Alkali earth metals

Oxygen group

1

1

2A

7A

3A

4A

5A

6A

7A

Halogens

Transition metals

3A

8A

Noble gases

Boron group

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

2

2

4A

Carbon group

Hydrogen

Inner transition metals

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

3

3

8B

3B

4B

5B

6B

7B

1B

2B

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

4

4

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

5

5

Cs

55

Ba

56

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

*

*

6

6

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

W

W

7

7

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

*

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103

W


Groups of elements1

Groups of Elements

Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, page 367


Groups of elements2

He

2

Li

3

Be

4

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

Na

11

Mg

12

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

K

19

Ca

20

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

Rb

37

Sr

38

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

Cs

55

Ba

56

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

Fr

87

Ra

88

Groups of Elements

1

18

2

13

14

15

16

17

Alkali metals

Oxygen family

1

16

Halogens

Alkali earth metals

17

2

Noble gases

Nitrogen family

18

15

Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, page 367


Metals and nonmetals

Metalloids

Metals and Nonmetals

H

1

He

2

1

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

Nonmetals

2

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

3

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

4

METALS

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

5

Cs

55

Ba

56

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

*

6

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

W

7

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103


Metals nonmetals metalloids

Metals, Nonmetals, & Metalloids

1

Nonmetals

2

3

4

Metals

5

6

7

Metalloids

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 349


Properties of metals nonmetals and metalloids

Properties of Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids

METALS

malleable, lustrous, ductile, good conductors of heat

and electricity

NONMETALS

gases or brittle solids at room temperature, poor

conductors of heat and electricity (insulators)

METALLOIDS (Semi-metals)

dull, brittle, semi-conductors (used in computer chips)


Discovering the periodic table

1894-1918

Ancient Times

H

He

Midd. -1700

1923-1961

1965-

1735-1843

1843-1886

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Xe

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

Ce

Pr

Nd

Pm

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tm

Yb

Lu

Th

Pa

U

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

Lr

Discovering the Periodic Table

Journal of Chemical Education, Sept. 1989


Electron filling in periodic table

Electron Filling in Periodic Table

metallic character increases

nonmetallic character increases

metallic character increases

nonmetallic character increases


Melting points

Melting Points

He

0.126

H

-259.2

He

-269.7

Mg

650

1

1

Symbol

Melting point oC

Li

180.5

Be

1283

B

2027

C

4100

N

-210.1

O

-218.8

F

-219.6

Ne

-248.6

2

2

> 3000 oC

2000 - 3000 oC

Na

98

Mg

650

Al

660

Si

1423

P

44.2

S

119

Cl

-101

Ar

-189.6

3

3

K

63.2

Ca

850

Sc

1423

Ti

1677

V

1917

Cr

1900

Mn

1244

Fe

1539

Co

1495

Ni

1455

Cu

1083

Zn

420

Ga

29.78

Ge

960

As

817

Se

217.4

Br

-7.2

Kr

-157.2

4

4

Rb

38.8

Sr

770

Y

1500

Zr

1852

Nb

2487

Mo

2610

Tc

2127

Ru

2427

Rh

1966

Pd

1550

Ag

961

Cd

321

In

156.2

Sn

231.9

Sb

630.5

Te

450

I

113.6

Xe

-111.9

5

5

Cs

28.6

Ba

710

La

920

Hf

2222

Ta

2997

W

3380

Re

3180

Os

2727

Ir

2454

Pt

1769

Au

1063

Hg

-38.9

Tl

303.6

Pb

327.4

Bi

271.3

Po

254

At

Rn

-71

6

6

Ralph A. Burns, Fundamentals of Chemistry , 1999, page 1999


Densities of elements

Densities of Elements

H

0.071

He

0.126

1

1

Li

0.53

Be

1.8

B

2.5

C

2.26

N

0.81

O

1.14

F

1.11

Ne

1.204

2

2

Na

0.97

Mg

1.74

Al

2.70

Si

2.4

P

1.82w

S

2.07

Cl

1.557

Ar

1.402

3

3

K

0.86

Ca

1.55

Sc

(2.5)

Ti

4.5

V

5.96

Cr

7.1

Mn

7.4

Fe

7.86

Co

8.9

Ni

8.90

Cu

8.92

Zn

7.14

Ga

5.91

Ge

5.36

As

5,7

Se

4.7

Br

3.119

Kr

2.6

4

4

Rb

1.53

Sr

2.6

Y

5.51

Zr

6.4

Nb

8.4

Mo

10.2

Tc

11.5

Ru

12.5

Rh

12.5

Pd

12.0

Ag

10.5

Cd

8.6

In

7.3

Sn

7.3

Sb

6.7

Te

6.1

I

4.93

Xe

3.06

5

5

Cs

1.90

Ba

3.5

La

6.7

Hf

13.1

Ta

16.6

W

19.3

Re

21.4

Os

22.48

Ir

22.4

Pt

21.45

Au

19.3

Hg

13.55

Tl

11.85

Pb

11.34

Bi

9.8

Po

9.4

At

---

Rn

4.4

6

6

8.0 – 11.9 g/cm3

12.0 – 17.9 g/cm3

> 18.0 g/cm3

Mg

1.74

Symbol

Density in g/cm3C, for gases, in g/L

W

Ralph A. Burns, Fundamentals of Chemistry , 1999, page 200


Periodic trends in atomic radii

Periodic Trends in Atomic Radii

LeMay Jr, Beall, Robblee, Brower, Chemistry Connections to Our Changing World , 1996, page 175


Relative size of atoms

Relative Size of Atoms

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 350


Shielding effect

Shielding Effect

Valence

Kernel electrons block the attractive force of the nucleus from the valence electrons

+

-

-

nucleus

-

Electrons

-

Electron

Shield

“kernel”

electrons


Atomic radii

Atomic Radii


Atomic radii vs ionic radii

Atomic Radii vs. Ionic Radii


First ionization energy plot

First Ionization Energy Plot


First ionization energy plot1

First Ionization Energy Plot


First ionization energy plot2

First Ionization Energy Plot


Formation of cation

sodium ion

Na+

e-

e-

e-

e-

11p+

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

Formation of Cation

sodium atom

Na

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

loss of

one valence

electron

11p+

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-


Formation of anion

chloride ion

Cl1-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

17p+

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

Formation of Anion

chlorine atom

Cl

gain of

one valence

electron

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

17p+

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-


Summary of periodic trends

Summary of Periodic Trends

Shielding is constant

Atomic radius decreases

Ionization energy increases

Electronegativity increases

Nuclear charge increases

1A

0

Nuclear charge increases

Shielding increases

Atomic radius increases

Ionic size increases

Ionization energy decreases

Electronegativity decreases

2A

3A

4A

6A

7A

5A

Ionic size (cations) Ionic size (anions)

decreases decreases


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