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CHAPTER 14. Pictorial Drawings and Technical Illustrations. Learning Objectives. Draw three-dimensional objects using 3-D coordinates Construct objects using isometric, diametric, or trimetric methods Construct objects using oblique drawing methods. Learning Objectives.

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Chapter 14


Pictorial Drawings and Technical Illustrations

Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Draw three-dimensional objects using 3-D coordinates

  • Construct objects using isometric, diametric, or trimetric methods

  • Construct objects using oblique drawing methods

Learning objectives1

Learning Objectives

  • Draw objects using one-, two-, or three-point perspective

  • Apply a variety of shading techniques to pictorial drawings

  • Given an orthographic engineering sketch of a part or assembly, draw the part in pictorial form using proper line contrasts and shading techniques

Pictorial drawings

Pictorial Drawings

  • Often accompany 2-D orthographic multiviews

    • Provide a realistic 3-D view

    • Help improve visualization

  • Now created using CADD or illustration programs

  • ASME Y14.4M, Pictorial Drawing standard

Pictorial drawings1

Pictorial Drawings

  • Useful for a variety of applications

  • Clarify basic and complicated engineering designs

  • Help designers and engineers work out spatial problems

  • Most often the basis for technical illustrations

Pictorial drawings2

Pictorial Drawings

Uses of pictorial drawings

Uses of Pictorial Drawings

  • Design

  • Instruction manuals

  • Parts catalogs

  • Advertising literature

  • Technical reports

  • Presentations

  • Assembly

  • Construction

Isometric projections and drawings

Isometric Projections and Drawings

  • Equal (iso) measure (metric)

  • Simplest form of axonometric projection

  • Single scale for all axes

Isometric and nonisometric planes

Isometric and Nonisometric Planes

Regular isometric

Regular Isometric

  • Most common

  • View the top of the object and the object from either side

Reverse isometric

Reverse Isometric

  • View the bottom of the object

Long axis isometric

Long-Axis Isometric

  • Common for long objects

Isometric construction box or coordinate method

Isometric Construction: Box or Coordinate Method

  • Most common form of isometric construction

  • Used on objects that have angular or radial features

Isometric construction centerline layout method

Isometric Construction: Centerline Layout Method

  • Used on objects with many circles and arcs

  • Circles in isometric are isometric ellipses

Isometric circles and arcs

Isometric Circles and Arcs

Establishing isometric intersections

Establishing Isometric Intersections

Drawing isometric sections

Drawing Isometric Sections

Drawing isometric threads

Drawing Isometric Threads

  • Equally spaced elliptical arcs

  • Detailed thread representation

Drawing isometric spheres

Drawing Isometric Spheres

Dimetric pictorial representation

Dimetric Pictorial Representation

  • Form of axonometric projection

  • Two different scales for measurement

  • Missing image – go to page 566

Trimetric pictorial representation

Trimetric Pictorial Representation

  • Most involved form of axonometric projection

  • Three different scales for measurement

Exploded pictorial drawings

Exploded Pictorial Drawings

  • Exploded assembly

  • Show the relationship of parts in a realistic manner

  • Commonly used in:

    • Parts catalogues

    • Owner's manuals

    • Assembly instructions

Exploded pictorial drawings1

Exploded Pictorial Drawings

  • Isometric drawings most common

  • Can include centerlines between part and subassembly axes

  • Can use solid extension lines between non-cylindrical features, parts, and subassemblies

  • Can include balloons

Exploded pictorial drawing

Exploded Pictorial Drawing

Oblique drawing

Oblique Drawing

  • Shows three faces of the object

  • Useful if one face of an object needs to be shown flat

Cavalier oblique

Cavalier Oblique

Cabinet oblique

Cabinet Oblique

General oblique

General Oblique

Perspective drawings

Perspective Drawings

  • Most realistic pictorial illustration

  • Show depth and distortion perceived by the human eye

    • Objects appear smaller the farther away they are until they vanish at a point on the horizon

      • One-point or parallel perspective

      • Two-point or angular perspective

      • Three-point perspective

General perspective drawing concepts

General Perspective Drawing Concepts

One point perspective

One-Point Perspective

  • Plan view is oriented so the front surface of the object is parallel to the picture plane

  • Elevation view is placed below and to the right or left of the plan and rests on the ground line

  • Used most often when drawing interiors of rooms

Two point perspective

Two-Point Perspective

  • Two principal planes are at an angle to the picture plane

  • Two vanishing points provide another dimension to the depth of the perspective

  • Most popular form of perspective drawing

    • Exteriors of houses and small buildings

    • Civil engineering projects

    • Machine parts (occasionally)

Three point perspective

Three-Point Perspective

  • Time consuming to construct

  • Often occupy a considerable area on the drawing sheet

  • Used to illustrate objects having great vertical measurements, such as tall buildings

Drawing circles and curves in perspective

Drawing Circles and Curves in Perspective

  • Circles in perspective typically appear as ellipses

  • Any circle on surface parallel to the picture plane appears as a circle

  • Construction using the coordinate method

Basic shading techniques

Basic Shading Techniques

  • Line-contrast shading

  • Straight-line shading

  • Block shading

  • Stipple shading

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