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CHAPTER 14. Pictorial Drawings and Technical Illustrations. Learning Objectives. Draw three-dimensional objects using 3-D coordinates Construct objects using isometric, diametric, or trimetric methods Construct objects using oblique drawing methods. Learning Objectives.

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chapter 14


Pictorial Drawings and Technical Illustrations

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Draw three-dimensional objects using 3-D coordinates
  • Construct objects using isometric, diametric, or trimetric methods
  • Construct objects using oblique drawing methods
learning objectives1
Learning Objectives
  • Draw objects using one-, two-, or three-point perspective
  • Apply a variety of shading techniques to pictorial drawings
  • Given an orthographic engineering sketch of a part or assembly, draw the part in pictorial form using proper line contrasts and shading techniques
pictorial drawings
Pictorial Drawings
  • Often accompany 2-D orthographic multiviews
    • Provide a realistic 3-D view
    • Help improve visualization
  • Now created using CADD or illustration programs
  • ASME Y14.4M, Pictorial Drawing standard
pictorial drawings1
Pictorial Drawings
  • Useful for a variety of applications
  • Clarify basic and complicated engineering designs
  • Help designers and engineers work out spatial problems
  • Most often the basis for technical illustrations
uses of pictorial drawings
Uses of Pictorial Drawings
  • Design
  • Instruction manuals
  • Parts catalogs
  • Advertising literature
  • Technical reports
  • Presentations
  • Assembly
  • Construction
isometric projections and drawings
Isometric Projections and Drawings
  • Equal (iso) measure (metric)
  • Simplest form of axonometric projection
  • Single scale for all axes
regular isometric
Regular Isometric
  • Most common
  • View the top of the object and the object from either side
reverse isometric
Reverse Isometric
  • View the bottom of the object
long axis isometric
Long-Axis Isometric
  • Common for long objects
isometric construction box or coordinate method
Isometric Construction: Box or Coordinate Method
  • Most common form of isometric construction
  • Used on objects that have angular or radial features
isometric construction centerline layout method
Isometric Construction: Centerline Layout Method
  • Used on objects with many circles and arcs
  • Circles in isometric are isometric ellipses
drawing isometric threads
Drawing Isometric Threads
  • Equally spaced elliptical arcs
  • Detailed thread representation
dimetric pictorial representation
Dimetric Pictorial Representation
  • Form of axonometric projection
  • Two different scales for measurement
  • Missing image – go to page 566
trimetric pictorial representation
Trimetric Pictorial Representation
  • Most involved form of axonometric projection
  • Three different scales for measurement
exploded pictorial drawings
Exploded Pictorial Drawings
  • Exploded assembly
  • Show the relationship of parts in a realistic manner
  • Commonly used in:
    • Parts catalogues
    • Owner\'s manuals
    • Assembly instructions
exploded pictorial drawings1
Exploded Pictorial Drawings
  • Isometric drawings most common
  • Can include centerlines between part and subassembly axes
  • Can use solid extension lines between non-cylindrical features, parts, and subassemblies
  • Can include balloons
oblique drawing
Oblique Drawing
  • Shows three faces of the object
  • Useful if one face of an object needs to be shown flat
perspective drawings
Perspective Drawings
  • Most realistic pictorial illustration
  • Show depth and distortion perceived by the human eye
    • Objects appear smaller the farther away they are until they vanish at a point on the horizon
      • One-point or parallel perspective
      • Two-point or angular perspective
      • Three-point perspective
one point perspective
One-Point Perspective
  • Plan view is oriented so the front surface of the object is parallel to the picture plane
  • Elevation view is placed below and to the right or left of the plan and rests on the ground line
  • Used most often when drawing interiors of rooms
two point perspective
Two-Point Perspective
  • Two principal planes are at an angle to the picture plane
  • Two vanishing points provide another dimension to the depth of the perspective
  • Most popular form of perspective drawing
    • Exteriors of houses and small buildings
    • Civil engineering projects
    • Machine parts (occasionally)
three point perspective
Three-Point Perspective
  • Time consuming to construct
  • Often occupy a considerable area on the drawing sheet
  • Used to illustrate objects having great vertical measurements, such as tall buildings
drawing circles and curves in perspective
Drawing Circles and Curves in Perspective
  • Circles in perspective typically appear as ellipses
  • Any circle on surface parallel to the picture plane appears as a circle
  • Construction using the coordinate method
basic shading techniques
Basic Shading Techniques
  • Line-contrast shading
  • Straight-line shading
  • Block shading
  • Stipple shading