Science, Systems, Matter, and Energy. G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 3. Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College Charlotte Kirkpatrick. Key Concepts. Science as a process for understanding. Components and regulation of systems.
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G. Tyler Miller’s
Living in the Environment
Dr. Richard Clements
Chattanooga State Technical Community College
happening over and over again in nature. Highly reliable
Fig. 3-2 p. 41
Reputable scientists question and disagree about
the meaning and accuracy as well as the validity
of the hypothesis
measurements to arrive at a general conclusion or hypothesis
“Bottom-up” reasoning: specific to general
Very high probability or degree of certainty that it is true
conclusion based on a generalization or premise
“Top-down” reasoning: general to specific
Conclusions are valid if the premise is correct and
we do not use faulty logic to arrive at the conclusion
Intuition, imagination, and creativity are also important to
Ask a question
and collect data
In data become
to explain data
Fig. 3-2 p. 41
A set of components that
1. function and interact in some regular and theoretically predictable manner and
2. be isolated for the purposes of observation and study
The environment has many interacting systems involving living and nonliving things
information within a system at certain rates.
where matter,energy, or information can accumulate
for various lengths of time before being released.
out of the system into sinks in the environment.
Find out how systems work
Evaluate which ideas or hypotheses work
Some of the most powerful models are mathematical models.
Models are only as good as the assumptions built into them and
The data fed into them to make projections about the behavior of a complex system.
energy, or information is fed back into the system as an
input that changes the system
that causes further change in the same direction
of that change
Most systems contain one or a series of
coupled positive and negative feedback loops
the response to it.
Time delays allow a problem to build up slowly until it
reaches a threshold level and causes a fundamental shift in
the behavior of a system.
ex. Pop. Growth, leaks from toxic waste dumps, etc.
combined effect is greater than the sum of their
Homeostasis: Maintenance of internal conditions in a
system despite fluctuations in the internal environment
Fig. 3-3 p. 46
The technological solution of one problem usually creates one or more new unanticipated problems
We can never do one thing: any action in a complex system has multiple and often unpredictable effects.
Discontinuities due to a breaching of an environmental threshold
Unpredictable, chaotic events
Purpose: In a group of no more than 3 you will design, build and test a passive solar water heater.
Design: this is your hypothesis, so it must be researched and based on known information or evidence from other research. You must include a written description of the process you went through to come up with the hypothesis, including your research information.
Include a diagram of your design and a list of materials
Procedure: Identify the procedures you went through to build the project (pictures must be included that show the group working together in the process). In addition, include a journal of the steps as well.
Testing: Identify your controlled, manipulated and responding variables then perform at least 3 tests of your design. One test may be the final one done at school. Alterations may be performed to modify your design (hypothesis), but they must be documented.
Data: keep a data table for a control and your experimental design. Be sure to include data at multiple intervals, not just beginning temp and ending temp.
Analysis: Look at your data and rework the data into a graph or some other way to analyze the data other than a chart of numbers. Determine what the data tells you.
Conclusion: is your design/hypothesis efficient at heating water and if it is not why and what would you do to improve it. Were there any experimental errors you could identify?
Reporting: You may turn in only one report but each person in the group must have contributed equally in all aspects of the project. In other words; you can not have one person design it, another person build it and another person write up the report; you must all be involved at all steps in the process.
We will have the final testing day as close to two weeks from Friday as possible, all depending on weather, so keep track of the weather report. I will give you at least a day notice as to when you need to bring in your project for the final testing.
Fig. 3-4 p. 48
transfer of electrons
share electrons, with in a molecule
Carbon containing compounds
Carbon in bonds with itself and one or more other elements like; H, O, N, S, P, Cl, and Fl
May be natural or synthetic
Do not have C-C or C-H bonds
Ex. NaCl, H2O, N2O, NO, CO, CO2 , NO2, SO2, NH3, H2S, H2SO4, HNO3
Organic vs. inorganic
hydrogen atoms. Ex. Methane CH4
of chlorine, carbon and hydrogen atoms. Ex. DDT
of carbon, chlorine and fluorine atoms. Ex. Freon-12
of carbon and hydrogen and oxygen. Ex. Glucose
Building block for larger polymers of complex
carbohydrates. Ex. Starch
for the larger polymer of Proteins
O, N for the larger polymers of Nucleic Acids
(RNA and DNA)
Fig. 3-6 p. 50
The three physical states of Matter
Differ by spacing and
orderliness of its atoms,
ions, or molecules
composed of a high energy mixture of roughly
equal numbers of positively charged ions and negatively
Fig. 3-7 p. 50
Concentrated, close to surface,
dilute,deep underground, not so
disorder or randomness in a
Fig. 3-8 p. 51
Fig. 3-9 p. 52
Heat from a stove burner causes
atoms or molecules in the pan’s
bottom to vibrate faster. The vibrating
atoms or molecules then collide with
nearby atoms or molecules, causing
them to vibrate faster. Eventually,
molecules or atoms in the pan’s
handle are vibrating so fast it
becomes too hot to touch.
Heating water in the bottom of a pan
causes some of the water to vaporize
into bubbles. Because they are
lighter than the surrounding water,
they rise. Water then sinks from the
top to replace the rising bubbles.This
up and down movement (convection)
eventually heats all of the water.
As the water boils, heat from the hot
stove burner and pan radiate into the
surrounding air, even though air
conducts very little heat.
Heat: the total kinetic energy of all the moving
atoms, ions, or molecules within a given substance.
Fig. 3-11 p. 553
Fig. 3-12 p. 53
Fig. In text p. 54
and harmful it is to living organisms
Air, water, soil, or body weight
soil or body
broken down completely by natural physical,
chemical, and biological processes
pollutants that are broken down by bacteria
Take decades or longer to decay. Ex. DDT and most
down by natural processes. Ex. Lead mercury, arsenic
unstable isotopes that emit high energy radiation or fast
moving particles or both at a fixed rate.
charged matter consisting of two protons and two
Fig. 3-13 p. 56
Fig. 3-16 p. 57
Atomic Bomb: Uncontrolled nuclear fission caused by the release of an enormous amount of energy.
An explosive charge forces two fissionable masses together so that the critical mass may be reach and a chain reaction can take place.
Nuclear Power Plant: Controlled nuclear fission so that the chain reaction only uses one of every two or three neutrons to split another nucleus.
The splitting of a nuclei causes the release of heat to produce steam to power a turbine.
Fig. 3-17 p. 58
First Law of Thermodynamics (Energy)
ENERGY IN = ENERGY OUT
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Always end up with less energy than we started with. Energy Efficiency will never be 100%.
Cannot recycle or reuse
industrialized nations, increase economic growth through
increase flow of matter and energy resources
without depleting matter resources or increases pollution
Sustainability based on
energy flow and matter
Fig. 3-20 p. 60; see Fig. 3-21 p. 61