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300 250 200 150 100 50 0. Normal. 50% Lesion. Coronary Blood Flow. 75%. 90%. Rest. 10,000 20,000 30,000. Work of the Heart (double product). Percentage reduction in fatal heart attacks. Paffenbarger et al Am Journal of Epidemiology 105:200-213, 1877.

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300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Normal

50% Lesion

Coronary Blood Flow

75%

90%

Rest

10,000 20,000 30,000

Work of the Heart (double product)


Percentage reduction in fatal heart attacks

Paffenbarger et al Am Journal of Epidemiology 105:200-213, 1877.


PHYSICAL FITNESS & CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

Blair, SN, et al, JAMA 276:205-210, 1996







Multiple risk factor intervention trial. Risk factor changes and mortality results. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research GroupJAMA. 1982;248:1465-1477.


CLINICAL TRIALS and mortality results. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group

Kramsch et al. New Eng J Med 305:1483-1489, 1981.


DISEASE PROGRESSION WITH EXERCISE and mortality results. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group

Haskell et al. Circulation 89:975-990, 1994


PROGRESSION OF DISEASE WITH EXERCISE TRAINING and mortality results. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group

Selvester, R. et al Annals of New York Academy of Science 301: 495-508, 1977.


DISEASE PROGRESSION WITH EXERCISE and mortality results. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group

Haskell et al. Circulation 89:975-990, 1994


DISEASE PROGRESSION WITH EXERCISE and mortality results. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group

Haskell et al. Circulation 89:975-990, 1994


Arterial Wall and mortality results. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group

Arterial Lymphatics

Plasma

[(

(

)] dt

)

-

-

-

Amount

Accumulating in artery wall

+

Removal of atheromic material

=

Artery to lymphatics

Rate of atherosclerosis

Plasma to artery

Artery to plasma


CAN ATHEROSCLEROSIS BE REVERSED? and mortality results. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group


ANGINA THRESHOLD and mortality results. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group

*

Ferguson, JR, et al Circulation 58:41-47, 1978.

  • Non-signficance

  • Heart Rate

  • Heart Work

  • Systolic Ejection Period

  • Left Ventricular Oxygen Uptake

  • a-v O2 difference of heart


Effectiveness of Cardiac Rehabilitation and mortality results. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group

Oldridge, N.B., JAMA 260:945-950, 1988.


Effectiveness of Cardiac Rehabilitation and mortality results. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group

O'Connor, G.T et al Circulation 80:234-244, 1989.


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