AP Review- French & Indian War through American Revolution- (Chps 5-9)
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AP Review- French & Indian War through American Revolution- (Chps 5-9) Colonial Society on eve of Revolution. HINT- don’t let 1st Great Awakening slip off your APUSH radar- has appeared on 5 of 6 AP released exams- pay special attention to consequences of 1st Great Awakening.

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AP Review- French & Indian War through American Revolution- (Chps 5-9)Colonial Society on eve of Revolution

HINT- don’t let 1st Great Awakening slip off your APUSH radar- has appeared on 5 of 6 AP released exams- pay special attention to consequences of 1st Great Awakening

  • First Great Awakening

    • Wave of religious revivals began in NE in 1730s

    • Swept to all colonies by 1740s

    • New Light ministers:

      • Emotional approach

      • Renewed missionary spirit=more converted slaves

      • Divisions in congregtional & presbyterian churches=diversity

      • Increase in women in congregations

    • vs. Old Light ministers

Key features:

Wealth-Northern merchants & Southern planters

# of non-English settlers continues to increase-Scots-Irish & Germans move into west as Natives defeated

13 colonies religiously diverse, no single dominant Protestant denomination

Slavery accepted as labor system & legally established in all colonies

Colonial cities=mercantile centers/ports with close economic & cultural ties w/ England

Colonial society
Colonial Society (Chps 5-9)

  • Women

  • Married=No property rights, no separate legal identity

  • Single & widows=right to own property

  • Anne Bradstreet=1st notable poet & 1st woman published in


    Phillis Wheatley=1st published African American poet

Republican Govt


Based on the consent of the governed

Inspired 18th century American revolutionaries

Sovereignty comes from the people-representation should be based on population

Republic=small, limited govt

Standing armies are dangerous

Agrarian life is desired

Events leading to the revolutionary war 1750 1776

-Salutary Neglect (Chps 5-9)

-Albany Plan of Union- In 1754, representatives from seven colonies met in Albany

-Ben Franklin

-Unite or Die!

THE SEVEN YEARS' WAR (1754-1763)/French & Indian War

Colonists were expanding westward – French wanted to protect fur trade

French build forts to stop them

Young George sent to stop them-yeah right…

War over=England top in North America, French out

Colonists sense of independence, unity

Served w/ British officers & not impressed

PROCLAMATION OF 1763- do not cross the Appalachian Mts!

Cant protect you from Indians/Pontiac- unless you want to pay= TAXES


British reactions key acts
British Reactions/ Key Acts (Chps 5-9)

  • Sugar Act

  • Quartering Act

  • Stamp Act 1765: “Stamp Act Resolves” Patrick Henry

    • Primary purpose=raise revenue to support British troops stationed in America

    • Key issues:

      • Does Parliament have the right to tax the colonies?

      • Can Parliament reflect colonial interests?

      • “No taxation without representation”- James Otis

      • Parliament claims “virtual representation”

      • Importance:

        -Colonists willing to use violence against British policy

        -British maintain colonies have no right to independence

        -Patriots claim entitled to all rights and privileges of British subjects

        -Repealed but…

        Townshend Act- too bad colonists, we own you & can make any law against you

        Tea Act- Tea Party

        Response= Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts- 1774

        Pay for the tea

        Port of Boston closed

        no meetings legislative or otherwise allowed in Massachusetts

Colonial brain power

Common sense- 1776 (Chps 5-9)

Thomas Paine

If your government does not give you your basic rights, get a new one

100,000 copies/ 3 mos (same as 13 million CDs today)

Propaganda to encourage revolt


18th century philosophy stresses reason can be used to improve the human condition

People like TJ & Ben liked this…

Natural rights


God created a universe governed by natural law- discovered by human reason

Colonial brain power

Declaration of independence
Declaration of Independence (Chps 5-9)

  • After failed attempts to deal with George III & small fighting

    • Stamp Act, Olive Branch, Boston Massacre, Lexington, Concord, etc.

  • Thomas Jefferson wrote most

  • 1776

  • Philosophy of natural rights- taken from John Locke

  • George III accused of being a tyrant

  • War is on now

Revolutionary war 1776 1781
Revolutionary War 1776-1781 (Chps 5-9)

  • Why did colonists (Patriots mainly from NE & VA) support?

    • Patriots= 40% of population

    • Believed George was a tyrant

    • Believed Parliament wanted to control internal affairs of colonies w/o their consent

    • Convinced British ministers & govt. officials had corrupting influence on colonists

    • Wanted greater political participation in policies affecting colonists

    • Resented quartering of British troops

    • Wanted to preserve local control & life w/o British interference

    • Consider: A Radical Rebellion?

    • Washington- struggle to have troops-short numbers, short supplies (95% decline in trade between 1775-1777), big losses in battles, hard winter, eventually help from African Americans (5,000)

  • Why did Tories (Loyalists) not support?

    • 60,000 Tories fought alongside British, many left US

    • “Mother” England=family

    • Native Americans- more support to British who promised to limit settlement to West

Alliance with france
Alliance with France (Chps 5-9)

  • Battle of Saratoga= turning point because it convinced the French government to declare war on Great Britain & openly aid America

  • HINT- AP tests rarely ask specific battle questions, but Saratoga is an exception- expected to know consequences of the battle, not necessarily the tactics & commanders

  • French military & financial aid played a key role in helping America win

  • Not because they loved our republican ideals, but because they wanted to weaken the British Empire

  • Franco- American alliance influences British to offer generous peace terms in the Treaty of Paris

End of the war peace
End of the War & peace (Chps 5-9)

Yorktown- 1781- last major battle

  • VA. Chesapeake Bay

  • British General Cornwallis surrounded- no escape on land or to sea

    Treaty of Paris 1783 (where else?) 

  • Britain would recognize the U.S. as an independent nation

  • Treaty sets new boundaries- west to Mississippi, north to Great Lakes & south to Spanish FL

  • Fishing rights off coast of Canada

  • Americans to pay debts owed to British merchants & Loyalists

  • America’s wont persecute Loyalists

Past ap frqs from this period
Past AP FRQs from this period (Chps 5-9)

  • 1974 To what extent did economic issues provoke the American Revolution?

  • 1975 “The Declaration of Independence has been variously interpreted as a bid for French support, an attempt to swing uncommitted Americans to the Revolutionary cause, a statement of universal principles, and an affirmation of the traditional rights of Englishmen.” To what extent , if any, are these interpretations in conflict?

  • 1978 “Although the thirteen American colonies were founded at different times by people with different motives and with different forms of colonial charters and political organization, by the Revolution the thirteen colonies had become remarkably similar.” Assess the validity of this statement.

  • 1982 “The American Revolution should really be called ‘The British Revolution,’ because marked changes in British colonial policy were more responsible for the final political division than were American actions.”

  • Assess the validity of this statement for the period 1763-1776.

  • 1986 “Despite the view of some historians that the conflict between Great Britain and its thirteen North American colonies was economic in origin, in fact the American Revolution had its roots in politics and other areas of American life.” Assess the validity of this statement.

  • 1987 “ Britain’s wars for empire, far more than its mercantilist policies, dictated the economic fortunes of Britain’s North American colonies in the eighteenth century.” Assess the validity of this statement.

  • 1988 “This history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpation, all having, in direct object, the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these States.” Evaluate this accusation made against George III in the Declaration of Independence.

  • 1989 “In the two decades before the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, a profound shift occurred in the way many Americans thought and felt about the British government and their colonial governments.” Assess the validity of this statement in view of the political and constitutional debates of these decades.

  • 1992 Evaluate the relative importance of the following as factors prompting Americans to rebel in 1776:

  • parliamentary taxation

  • restriction of civil liberties

  • British military measures

  • the legacy of colonial religious and political ideas

  • 1994 Evaluate the relative importance of domestic and foreign affairs in shaping the politics of the 1790s.

  • 1997 Analyze the extent to which the American Revolution represented a radical alteration in American political ideas and institutions. Confine your answer to the period 1775 to 1800.

  • 2004 Analyze the impact of the American Revolution on both slavery and the status of women in the from 1775-1800.

Past dbqs from this period
Past DBQs from this period (Chps 5-9)

  • Colonial and Revolutionary America

  • 1993 Although New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled largely by people of English origin, by 1700 the regions had evolved into two distinct societies. Why did this difference in development occur?

  • 2004 In what ways did the French and Indian War (1754-63) alter the political, economic and ideological relations between Britain and its American colonies. Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1740-1766 in constructing your answer.

  • 1999 To what extent had the colonists developed a sense of their identity and unity as Americans by the eve of the Revolution? Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1750-1776 to answer the question.

  • 1976 Was American society, as evidenced by Wethersfield, Connecticut, becoming more "democratic" in the period from 1750's to the 1780's? Discuss with reference to property distribution, social structure, politics, and religion.

  • 2005 To what extent did the American Revolution fundamentally change American society? In your answer be sure to address the political, social and economic effects of the Revolution in the period from 1775 to 1800.

Reminders (Chps 5-9)


  • Outside info is huge!

  • DBQ

    Outside info In the docs

Multiple choice practice
Multiple Choice Practice (Chps 5-9)

1. The French and Indian War was a pivotal point in America’s relationship to Great Britain because it led to Great Britain to

  • (A) encourage colonial manufactures

  • (B) impose revenue taxes on the colonies

  • (C) restrict emigration from England

  • (D) ignore the colonies

  • (E) grant increased colonial self-government

Answer (Chps 5-9)

  • B

2. The Proclamation of 1763 (Chps 5-9)

(A) exacted burdensome taxes from the colonists to finance Britain’s war debts.

(B) granted some frontier territory to Native Americans.

(C) prohibited colonists from settling beyond the Appalachians.

(D) established royal governors in the colonies.

(E) made Florida a British territory.

Answer (Chps 5-9)

  • C

3. Americans responded to Britain’s many new taxes in the 1760s with the line, “No taxation without representation.” What did this mean exactly?

(A) That Americans wanted to have representatives in Parliament before they would accept tax legislation passed there

(B) That only colonial legislatures could tax the colonies

(C) That the colonists would accept virtual representation in fiscal matters

(D) That Parliament put the needs of citizens in England above those of its colonists

(E) That the king was the ultimate representative, and therefore exclusively held the power to tax

Answer 1760s with the line, “No taxation without representation.” What did this mean exactly?

  • B

4. The Stamp Act crisis was important in the coming of the American Revolution for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:

(A) The colonists demonstrated their willingness to use violence rather than legal means to frustrate British policy.

(B) The crisis coincided with a British decision to garrison regular troops in American cities.

(C) American patriots realized that British inflexibility made revolution virtually inevitable.

(D) The British maintained that the colonies had no right to independence from parliamentary authority.

(E) Patriot leaders claimed that the act denied them their British birthrights.

Answer American Revolution for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:

  • C

5. The battle of Saratoga proved vitally important to the American cause because

(A) it encouraged France to provide much-needed military aid.

(B) the impressive British General Burgoyne perished in combat.

(C) Britain surrendered, and the Revolution was won.

(D) it boosted the morale of the Patriots.

(E) it brought France, Spain, and Germany into the conflict on the side of the Americans.

Answer American cause because

  • A

6. France’s support for the United States during the American Revolutionary War was motivated primarily by

(A) enthusiasm for the revolutionary principles espoused by the American

(B) a desire to weaken its rival, Great Britain

(C) a desire to regain Canada and the Floridas

(D) pressures from its ally, Spain

(E) the hope of converting the United States into a French dependency

Answer American Revolutionary War was motivated primarily by

  • B