Psychological disorders
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Psychological Disorders. Chapter 15. Psychological Disorders. Mental processes or behavior patterns that cause emotional distress and/or substantial impairment in functioning. What is abnormal?. Human behavior lies along a continuum, from well adjusted to mal-adjusted

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Psychological Disorders

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Psychological Disorders

Chapter 15


Psychological Disorders

  • Mental processes or behavior patterns that cause emotional distress and/or substantial impairment in functioning


What is abnormal?

  • Human behavior lies along a continuum, from well adjusted to mal-adjusted

  • Where along the continuum does behavior become abnormal?


Criteria

  • Is the behavior considered strange within the person’s own culture?

  • Does the behavior cause personal distress?

  • Is the behavior maladaptive?

  • Is the person a danger to himself or to herself?

  • Is the person legally responsible for his or her acts?


Prevalence of psychological Disorders

  • 22% of Americans are diagnosed with a psychological disorder annually in the US

  • The lifetime risk of being diagnosed with a psychological disorder is 50%


Insanity

  • A legal, not psychological term

  • Means an individual is not legally responsible for his/her behavior due to a psychiatric illness or some other temporary or permanent mental condition


DSM-IV/TRDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

  • Lists the criteria for assigning various diagnoses

  • All psychological disorders are organized into various categories


ANXIETY DISORDERS


Generalized Anxiety Disorder

  • Characterized by chronic worry that is so severe that it interferes with daily functioning


Panic Disorder

  • Characterized by recurrent, unpredictable panic attacks of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror

  • During these attacks people experience palpitations, trembling, shaking, choking or smothering sensations, and the feeling that they are going to die or lose their sanity


Phobias

  • There are three categories of phobias

    • Agoraphobia

    • Social phobia

    • Specific phobia


Agoraphobia

  • Fear of being in situations where escape is impossible or help is not available in case of incapacitating anxiety


Social Phobia

  • Fear of social situations where one might be embarrassed or humiliated by appearing clumsy or incompetent


Specific Phobia

  • A marked fear of a specific object or situation and a catchall for all other phobias


Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders

  • Characterized by obsessions (persistent, recurring, involuntary thoughts, images, or impulses that cause great distress) and/or compulsions (persistent, irresistible, irrational urges to perform an act or ritual repeatedly)


MOOD DISORDERS


  • A major depressive disorder characterized by feelings of great sadness, despair, guilt, worthlessness, hopelessness, and, in extreme cases, suicidal intentions


  • Lifetime rates of depression vary widely from one culture to another

  • Women are more likely to suffer from depression than men all over the world


Bipolar Disorder

  • Mood disorder in which a person suffers from manic episodes (periods of extreme elation, euphoria, and hyperactivity) alternating with major depression


Proposed causes of mood disorders

  • 1. genetic predisposition

  • 2. imbalance in neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin

  • 3. tendency to turn hostility and resentment inward rather than expressing it

  • 4. distorted and negative views of oneself, the world, the future

  • 5. stress


  • Heredity is a major cause of mood disorders.

  • Negative thought patterns also contribute to these disorders.

  • Major life stresses may trigger a mood disorder.


Suicide

  • Depression is linked to suicide along with other disorders.

  • Elderly, white males highest rate of suicide- perhaps due to poor health or loneliness

  • Women more likely to attempt, men more likely to be successful

  • Asian Americans have the lowest rate of all US ethnic groups


SCHIZOPHRENIA

  • Positive symptoms: abnormal behaviors and characteristics- hallucinations, disorganized thinking, delusions, disorganized speech, bizarre behavior, inappropriate affect

  • Negative symptoms: social withdrawal, apathy, loss of motivation, very limited speech, slowed movements, flat affect, poor hygiene and grooming


4 types of schizophrenia

  • Paranoid

  • Disorganized

  • Catatonic

  • Undifferentiated


Risk factors

  • Genetic predisposition

  • Stress in people who are predisposed

  • Excessive dopamine activity in the brain


SOMATOFORM AND DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS

  • Involve bodily symptoms that cannot be identified as any of the known medical conditions


Hypochondriasis

  • Persistent fear that bodily symptoms are the signs of some serious disease


Conversion disorder

  • Loss of motor or sensory functioning in some part of the body, such as paralysis or blindness


Dissociative amnesia

  • Loss of memory for limited periods of their life or for their entire personal identity


Dissociative fugue disorder

  • People forget their entire identity, travel away form home, may assume new identity somewhere else


Dissociative identity disorder

  • Multiple personality

  • Two or more distinct, unique personalities occur in the same person, each taking over at different times

  • Most patients are female and victims of early, severe physical and/or sexual abuse


Other Psychological Disorders

  • Gender identity disorder: people feel their psychological gender identity is different form that which is typically associated with their biological sex

  • Paraphilias:sufferers have recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, and behaviors that involve children, other non-consenting partner, or non-human objects

  • Sexual dysfunction: a problem with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm


3 Clusters of Personality Disorders

  • People with personality disorders have long-standing, inflexible, maladaptive patterns of behavior that cause problems in social relationships at work

  • Often cause personal distress

  • Many are unable to change and always blame others for their problems


continued

  • Cluster A: characterized by odd behavior

  • Cluster B: erratic emotions and overly dramatic behavior

  • Cluster C: disorders associated with extreme levels of fearfulness and anxiety


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