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Psychological Disorders. Chapter 15. Psychological Disorders. Mental processes or behavior patterns that cause emotional distress and/or substantial impairment in functioning. What is abnormal?. Human behavior lies along a continuum, from well adjusted to mal-adjusted

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psychological disorders1
Psychological Disorders
  • Mental processes or behavior patterns that cause emotional distress and/or substantial impairment in functioning
what is abnormal
What is abnormal?
  • Human behavior lies along a continuum, from well adjusted to mal-adjusted
  • Where along the continuum does behavior become abnormal?
criteria
Criteria
  • Is the behavior considered strange within the person’s own culture?
  • Does the behavior cause personal distress?
  • Is the behavior maladaptive?
  • Is the person a danger to himself or to herself?
  • Is the person legally responsible for his or her acts?
prevalence of psychological disorders
Prevalence of psychological Disorders
  • 22% of Americans are diagnosed with a psychological disorder annually in the US
  • The lifetime risk of being diagnosed with a psychological disorder is 50%
insanity
Insanity
  • A legal, not psychological term
  • Means an individual is not legally responsible for his/her behavior due to a psychiatric illness or some other temporary or permanent mental condition
dsm iv tr diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
DSM-IV/TRDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  • Lists the criteria for assigning various diagnoses
  • All psychological disorders are organized into various categories
generalized anxiety disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Characterized by chronic worry that is so severe that it interferes with daily functioning
panic disorder
Panic Disorder
  • Characterized by recurrent, unpredictable panic attacks of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror
  • During these attacks people experience palpitations, trembling, shaking, choking or smothering sensations, and the feeling that they are going to die or lose their sanity
phobias
Phobias
  • There are three categories of phobias
    • Agoraphobia
    • Social phobia
    • Specific phobia
agoraphobia
Agoraphobia
  • Fear of being in situations where escape is impossible or help is not available in case of incapacitating anxiety
social phobia
Social Phobia
  • Fear of social situations where one might be embarrassed or humiliated by appearing clumsy or incompetent
specific phobia
Specific Phobia
  • A marked fear of a specific object or situation and a catchall for all other phobias
obsessive compulsive disorders
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
  • Characterized by obsessions (persistent, recurring, involuntary thoughts, images, or impulses that cause great distress) and/or compulsions (persistent, irresistible, irrational urges to perform an act or ritual repeatedly)
slide17
A major depressive disorder characterized by feelings of great sadness, despair, guilt, worthlessness, hopelessness, and, in extreme cases, suicidal intentions
slide18
Lifetime rates of depression vary widely from one culture to another
  • Women are more likely to suffer from depression than men all over the world
bipolar disorder
Bipolar Disorder
  • Mood disorder in which a person suffers from manic episodes (periods of extreme elation, euphoria, and hyperactivity) alternating with major depression
proposed causes of mood disorders
Proposed causes of mood disorders
  • 1. genetic predisposition
  • 2. imbalance in neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin
  • 3. tendency to turn hostility and resentment inward rather than expressing it
  • 4. distorted and negative views of oneself, the world, the future
  • 5. stress
slide21
Heredity is a major cause of mood disorders.
  • Negative thought patterns also contribute to these disorders.
  • Major life stresses may trigger a mood disorder.
suicide
Suicide
  • Depression is linked to suicide along with other disorders.
  • Elderly, white males highest rate of suicide- perhaps due to poor health or loneliness
  • Women more likely to attempt, men more likely to be successful
  • Asian Americans have the lowest rate of all US ethnic groups
schizophrenia
SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • Positive symptoms: abnormal behaviors and characteristics- hallucinations, disorganized thinking, delusions, disorganized speech, bizarre behavior, inappropriate affect
  • Negative symptoms: social withdrawal, apathy, loss of motivation, very limited speech, slowed movements, flat affect, poor hygiene and grooming
4 types of schizophrenia
4 types of schizophrenia
  • Paranoid
  • Disorganized
  • Catatonic
  • Undifferentiated
risk factors
Risk factors
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Stress in people who are predisposed
  • Excessive dopamine activity in the brain
somatoform and dissociative disorders
SOMATOFORM AND DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS
  • Involve bodily symptoms that cannot be identified as any of the known medical conditions
hypochondriasis
Hypochondriasis
  • Persistent fear that bodily symptoms are the signs of some serious disease
conversion disorder
Conversion disorder
  • Loss of motor or sensory functioning in some part of the body, such as paralysis or blindness
dissociative amnesia
Dissociative amnesia
  • Loss of memory for limited periods of their life or for their entire personal identity
dissociative fugue disorder
Dissociative fugue disorder
  • People forget their entire identity, travel away form home, may assume new identity somewhere else
dissociative identity disorder
Dissociative identity disorder
  • Multiple personality
  • Two or more distinct, unique personalities occur in the same person, each taking over at different times
  • Most patients are female and victims of early, severe physical and/or sexual abuse
other psychological disorders
Other Psychological Disorders
  • Gender identity disorder: people feel their psychological gender identity is different form that which is typically associated with their biological sex
  • Paraphilias:sufferers have recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, and behaviors that involve children, other non-consenting partner, or non-human objects
  • Sexual dysfunction: a problem with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm
3 clusters of personality disorders
3 Clusters of Personality Disorders
  • People with personality disorders have long-standing, inflexible, maladaptive patterns of behavior that cause problems in social relationships at work
  • Often cause personal distress
  • Many are unable to change and always blame others for their problems
continued
continued
  • Cluster A: characterized by odd behavior
  • Cluster B: erratic emotions and overly dramatic behavior
  • Cluster C: disorders associated with extreme levels of fearfulness and anxiety
ad