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Assessment, Evaluation, and Value: Current Trends. Rosalind F. Dudden, MLS, DM/AHIP, FMLA Library Services Director Tucker Medical Library National Jewish Medical and Research Center Denver, Colorado 80206. Outline. Background Trends in Assessment Trends in Evaluation

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Assessment evaluation and value current trends

Assessment, Evaluation, and Value: Current Trends.

Rosalind F. Dudden, MLS, DM/AHIP, FMLA

Library Services Director

Tucker Medical Library

National Jewish Medical and Research Center

Denver, Colorado 80206


Outline
Outline

  • Background

  • Trends in Assessment

  • Trends in Evaluation

  • Outcomes Measurements

  • Reporting Outcomes

  • Value concepts

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Response to library cuts
Response to Library Cuts being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • National Library of Medicine Publications Grant, now called NLM Grants for Scholarly Works in Biomedicine and Health

  • (#5-G13LM008520) Oct 2004 to Sept 2006

  • Purpose: a book-length manuscript (or other scholarly work) of value to U.S. health professionals.

  • A good score - hope that other people thought the book would be of use to librarians in small library settings.

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Response to library cuts1
Response to Library Cuts being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

Table of Contents

Part I: Evaluating Library

Quality and Performance

1. Why Evaluate?

2. The Effective Library

3. Library Measures

New York: Neal Sculman, July 2007.

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Response to library cuts2
Response to Library Cuts being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Part II:Working with Evaluation Methods

    4. Method 1: Needs Assessment

    Workbook for Needs Assessment

    5. Method 2: Quality Improvement

    Workbook for FOCUS-PDCA

    6. Method 3: Benchmarking

    Workbook for Performance Benchmarking

    Workbook for Process Benchmarking

    7. Method 4: Library Performance Standards

    Workbook for Library Performance Standards

    Workbook for Accreditation Standards

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Response to library cuts3
Response to Library Cuts being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

8. Method 5: Outcomes Measurement

Workbook for Describing Published Studies of Outcomes Measurement

Workbook for Cost Outcomes

Workbook for the Logic Model

9. Other Systems for Quality Improvement and Evaluation

Part III: Tools for Doing Evaluations

10. Data Collection and Analysis Methods

11. Skills for Communicating in Evaluation Projects

12. Tools for Improvement and Evaluation

Appendix A: Glossary of Terms

Appendix B: Recommended Reading

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Straight path of evaluation
Straight Path of Evaluation being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

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But soon
But Soon… being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

Cover - The New Republic - 2/19/2007

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Background
Background being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • It started with Lancaster

  • Lancaster FW. The Measurement and Evaluation of Library Services. 1977. 1991 (with Baker SL).

  • Lancaster FW. If You Want to Evaluate Your Library. 1988, 1993

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Background process
Background - Process being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Libraries would do a process evaluation

    • No one would notice except those working in the part of the library being evaluated.

  • Processes were improved, customer needs met, the head librarian managed.

  • While not rich, libraries in general were supported.

  • Libraries were considered “essentially good.”

  • Why evaluate something that is going to exist anyway because of its basic value to society or the corporation?

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Background comparative
Background - Comparative being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • To assure or perhaps to prove quality, library associations renewed their interest in writing library standards and guidelines.

  • At the same time ARL and AAHLS started collecting comparative data on library operations and still do today.

  • MLA followed recently by collecting data for non-academic health sciences libraries in their Benchmarking Network surveys.

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Background technology
Background - Technology being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • 80s - Technologically, libraries started feeling a paradigm shift from the printed word to other media.

  • 90s on - The impact of the Internet on library operations is unprecedented.

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Background integration
Background - Integration being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • The integration of all types of information, as described as early as 1982 in the Matheson report, is now being felt in many settings where libraries operate.

  • Information is being connected on a scale and with a speed often felt to be overwhelming.

    • Electronic health records

    • Industry-wide portals

    • Federated search engines

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Background1
Background being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Virginia Holtz, in her 1986 MLA Janet Doe lecture, “Measures of Excellence: the Search for the Gold Standard,” when the Internet was just a transmission device, stated what is still true today:

    “Typography of information is primitive. … Further study will continue to reveal its full structure and the relationships among the parts.”

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Background2
Background being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

What happened to just buying and cataloging a book?

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Shifting paradigms

1900 being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

Engineering

linear development

vertical integration

2000

Biology

diffusion

webs

volatility

adaptability

Shifting Paradigms

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Linear arrangement of types of measures
Linear Arrangement of Types of Measures being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

Dudden, RF. Using Benchmarking, Needs Assessment, Quality Improvement, Outcome Measurement, and Library Standards: A How-To-Do-It Manual. New York: Neal Sculman, 2007.

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Linear arrangement of types of measures1
Linear Arrangement of Types of Measures being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

Dudden, RF. Using Benchmarking, Needs Assessment, Quality Improvement, Outcome Measurement, and Library Standards: A How-To-Do-It Manual. New York: Neal Sculman, 2007.

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User behavior
User Behavior being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Multidimensional nature of the typical graduate student.

  • A person who is struggling to complete his/her dissertation and uses information resources in a multiplicity of ways.

    • Martha Kyrillidou, Director, Statistics and Service Quality Programs, ARL

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User behavior1
User Behavior being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • directly borrow library resources

  • talk to faculty members who have used the library themselves

  • borrow a book from his or her advisor

  • find another interesting resource while visiting a fellow-students' home

  • communicate via e-mail with other experts who refer him or her to additional resources and citations

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User behavior2
User Behavior being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • browse the Internet and locate blogs and wikis in his or her specific field of interest

  • send reference inquiries to ask-a-service operations

  • talk with a fellow student whose spouse works in the library and discuss with him or her the articles he or she was able to locate in the library

  • - - with the help of a librarian

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Inputs to outputs to outcomes
Inputs to Outputs to Outcomes being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

“This inextricable and complex web of relations provides a richer context for the usefulness of inputs, outputs, quality issues, and the impact libraries are making.”

  • Martha Kyrillidou. From input and output measures to quality and outcome measures, or, from the user in the life of the library to the library in the life of the user. J Acad Libr. 2002;28(1/2):42-6.

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User in the life of the library
“User in the life of the library.. being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • “The usual linear model (Figure 2) depicting a linear, sequential, rational, and controlled set of relations

  • is indeed limiting our understanding of a model (Figure 3) that is more cyclical, haphazard, and uncontrolled.”

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The library in the life of the user
“the library in the life of the user… being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • “This becomes even more complex when one tries to introduce the notion of motion (Figure 4) depicting a more dynamic and flexible model,

  • moving users and information resources

  • into a spiral swirl up and down

  • into the depths of knowledge, exploration, and experience.”

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What do we measure
What do we measure? being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Needs

  • Inputs

  • Quality Processes

  • Outputs

  • Quality Service

  • Outcomes

  • Impacts

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Assessment evaluations
Assessment - Evaluations being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Definitions:

    • “Assessment is the gathering of meaningful or purposeful data that will provide information that informs, improves, or confirms.”

    • “Evaluation is assigning merit, value or worth to the findings.”

      • Lee-Thomas G, Robson J. The questions of academic library assessment. Indiana Libr. 2004;23(1):6-10.

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Measure needs
Measure Needs being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Needs assessment

  • Customer focus

    • Perley CM, Gentry CA, Fleming AS, Sen KM. Conducting a user-centered information needs assessment: the Via Christi Libraries' experience. J Med Libr Assoc. Apr 2007;95(2):173-81, e54-5.

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Needs assessment results
Needs Assessment Results being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Clinicians emphasized the need for

    • “Just in time” information accessible at the point of care

    • Information services customized to their professional information needs, preferences, and patterns of use

    • Organization-specific information needs identified

  • Library nonusers emphasized the need to market library services and resources.

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Measure inputs
Measure Inputs being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • What is the size of our staff, budget, space, or collection?

  • How do we compare to others in benchmarking studies?

  • Often criticized, but comparisons are sometimes it is the only thing stakeholders understand.

  • The comparisons answer questions people ask because they do not know what else to ask.

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Measure inputs1
Measure Inputs being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • A casual conversation:

  • “How many e-journals do you have?”

  • Answer 1: “350 (or whatever) AND did you know that the process of investigation by our scientists has been fast-tracked by their access to this information at their desktop?”

  • Answer 2: “1500 (or whatever) AND did you know that the use of these resources by our high school students at home has increased their ability to have more resources cited in their papers?”

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Measure inputs2
Measure Inputs being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • You still need those traditional input counts.

    • Good management

    • Budgeting and resource allocation

    • Comparative Benchmarking

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Measure quality processes
Measure Quality Processes being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • TQM (Total Quality Management) - now part of any management culture.

  • Quality improvement techniques:

    • PDCA - Plan-Do-Check-Act

    • Gemba Visits

    • Kaizen

    • Lean, Five Ss

    • Learning Organization

    • Sigma Six

    • Balanced Scorecard

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Measure quality processes1
Measure Quality Processes being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • David Orenstein

  • A quality culture “considers service issues, people, and challenges as simultaneous and interconnected concerns.”

  • Eleven ways to move your library to adopt a quality culture -

    • Orenstein DI. Developing quality managers and quality management: the challenge to leadership in library organizations. Libr Adm Manag. 1999;13(1):44-51.

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Quality culture
Quality Culture being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Build a shared vision for the library.

  • Put the needs of the customers before the politics of the organization.

  • Build cooperation among all levels of employees.

  • Communicate.

  • Emphasize teamwork.

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Quality culture1
Quality Culture being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Build trust.

  • Redesign processes and attitudes.

  • Train for quality.

  • Develop leadership skills.

  • Manage by fact. – (EBLIP4.unc.edu)

  • Motivate staff by making work enjoyable.

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Measure outputs
Measure Outputs being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Answers the question - What do you do?

    • Use in communications to stakeholders

  • Identify trends.

  • Can indicate a re-assignment of staff.

  • A trend up or down may indicate the necessity of further evaluation of a program or service.

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By the numbers
By the Numbers being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • 8,428,033 Items circulated

  • 417 Full-time equivalent staff members

  • 3,918,658 Visitors to the Central Library and 22 branch locations

  • 31,378,982 Transactions conducted online

  • 99,332 Hours donated by docents and volunteers

  • 939,393 Reference questions answered system-wide

  • 22,446 Kids / teens who registered for Summer of Reading

    (2005 Annual Report)

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Measure service quality
Measure Service Quality being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • LibQual+™ - from ARL - http://www.libqual.org/

  • A suite of services that libraries use to solicit, track, understand, and act upon users’ opinions of service quality.

  • The program’s centerpiece is a rigorously tested Web-based survey - bundled with training that helps libraries assess and improve library services, change organizational culture, and market the library.

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Measure service quality1
Measure Service Quality being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • LibQual+™ seeks to measure three dimensions of library service quality:

    • the library as place (utilitarian space, symbol, refuge);

    • information control (scope, timeliness, convenience, ease of navigation, modern equipment); and

    • affect of service (empathy, responsiveness, assurance, reliability).

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Measure service quality2
Measure Service Quality being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Non-ARL libraries

  • Simple satisfaction surveys

  • Rate service as to

    • Satisfaction 1 2 3 4 5

    • Importance 1 2 3 4 5

  • Used Web-based tools such as SurveyMonkey or Zoomerang

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Measure outcomes
Measure Outcomes being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Started in 1993 with the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA)

  • The GPRA required that most federal agencies develop objective, quantifiable and measurable goals and report how well those goals were achieved.

  • The influence of the law spread to local governments and philanthropic organizations.

  • If a program says it will change the lives of a certain population group, how does it prove it actually did?

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Measure outcomes1
Measure Outcomes being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • United Way of America:

    • Measuring Program Outcomes: A Practical Approach, 1996.

    • The Outcome Measurement Resource Network

  • W.K. Kellogg Foundation:

    • W.K. Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Handbook, 1998;

    • Logic Model Development Guide. 2004.

    • The Evaluation Toolkit

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Measure outcomes2
Measure Outcomes being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • A fiscally conservative trend

  • “Prove” that the dollars spent helping people really do

  • Trickle down effect to all types of libraries, as well as museums, colleges, and universities

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Outcomes public libraries
Outcomes - Public Libraries being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

The Institute for Museum and Library Services (IMLS) describes an outcome as

- a benefit to people through achievements or changes in skill, knowledge, attitude, behavior, condition, or life status.

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Outcomes public libraries1
Outcomes - Public Libraries being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • How libraries and librarians help: A Guide to Identifying User-Centered Outcomes, by Durrance and Fisher

  • “Political pressures are very strong for public libraries to prove their worth in competition for tax dollars.”

    • Information School, University of WashingtonSchool of Information, University of Michigan

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Outcomes public libraries2
Outcomes - Public Libraries being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Outcomes Tool Kit 2.0 provides “guidance for going beyond reporting outputs and will help you to discover outcomes, or indicators of impact, of your programs that can be shared with others.”

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Outcomes public libraries3
Outcomes - Public Libraries being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Shaping Outcomes

  • An outcome is a change in a target audience’s skills, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, status, or life condition brought about by experiencing a program.

    • Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis

    • http://www.shapingoutcomes.org/course/index.htm

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Outcomes ice cream socials
Outcomes - Ice Cream Socials being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Example: A local Denver dairy is awarding cash grants or ice cream socials to school libraries.

  • As part of the application, the library needs to:

    • Describe who will benefit from the grant.

    • What measure will you use to determine the success of the project?

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Outcomes academic libraries
Outcomes - Academic Libraries being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Challenges

    • Is the academic performance of students improved through their contact with the library?

    • By using the library, do students improve their chances of having a successful career?

    • Are undergraduates who used the library more likely to succeed in graduate school?

    • Are students who use the library more likely to lead fuller and more satisfying lives?

      • ACRL Task Force on Academic Library Outcomes Assessment

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Outcomes health libraries
Outcomes - Health Libraries being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Impact federal health library outreach programs

  • Measuring the Difference : Guide to Planning and Evaluating Health Information Outreach. 2000; three supplemental publications, 2006.

  • National Network of Libraries of Medicine Pacific Northwest Region

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Mla ccml vital pathways
MLA-CCML - Vital Pathways being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • The MLA Vital Pathways Task Force

  • To help hospital librarians communicate with other leaders in their institutions about the true value of librarians and library services.

  • Myths and Truths About Library Services

    • Developed by the Colorado Council of Medical Librarians (CCML) Advocacy Committee and MLA, 2006.

    • http://www.mlanet.org/resources/vital/index.html

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Presenting value
Presenting Value being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Present the facts or truths

  • Present the sources

  • Present your story

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Myth quality of patient care is unaffected by library services
Myth: being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.” Quality of Patient Care is Unaffected by Library Services

TRUTH:

  • Research has shown that libraries improve patient care

    • Weightman and Williamson state:

    • “Research studies suggest professionally led library services have an impact on health outcomes for patients and may lead to time savings for health-care professionals.”

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Source
Source: being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Weightman AL, Williamson J. The value and impact of information provided through library services for patient care: a systematic review. Health Infor Libr J 2005;22(1):4-25.

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Tucker library story
Tucker Library Story: being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Physicians use the Tucker Library to make patient care decisions:

    • Quote from a recent survey:

    • “The library is critical to my role as a clinical radiologist. Twice within the past month, I have used it to search for a specific clinical diagnosis, resulting in a change of management for the patient, and education for clinician colleagues.”

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Reporting the outcomes
Reporting the Outcomes being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • From published sources

  • or your own survey --

  • Weightman and Williamson report

  • “Evidence of the impact of professional library services on health outcomes for patients and time savings for health-care staff is available and can be used to demonstrate the impact of library services to users, managers and funding bodies.”

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Impact of this outcome
Impact of this Outcome being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • “The results suggest clear evidence of an impact of library services on patient outcomes from both traditional and clinical librarian services.

  • The higher quality traditional library studies suggest effects of impacts of between

    • 37 and 97% on general patient care,

    • 10–31% on diagnosis,

    • 20–51% on choice of tests,

    • 27–45% on choice of therapy and

    • 10–19% on reduced length of stay”

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Reporting the outcomes1
Reporting the Outcomes being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • The authors state:

  • “A practical reliable survey methodology could also be used, at a local level, to provide evidence of the impact of the library service on a range of outcomes.”

  • Development of such a tool would be useful to all libraries.

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Outcomes marshall

Corporate study: being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

Ability to proceed

Make a decision

Create new opportunity

Save time

Save money

Government study:

Meet a deadline

Deal with an emergency

Improve a policy, procedure or plan

Lessen conflict

Save time and resources

Outcomes - Marshall

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Outcomes and impacts
Outcomes and Impacts being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Jose-Marie Griffiths and Donald Ward King

  • Special Libraries: Increasing the Information Edge. Washington, D.C., Special Libraries Association, 1993.

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Culture of assessment
Culture of Assessment being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • "A Culture of Assessment can be achieved by

    • creating systems and structures that are based on

    • continuous assessment and evaluation

    • in an organizational culture that is

    • customer focused and

    • uses assessment systematically.”

      • Amos Lakos and Shelley Phipps. Creating a culture of assessment: a catalyst for organizational change. Portal. 2004;4(3):345-61

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Culture of assessment1
Culture of Assessment being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • “Librarians have to create customer-responsive environments that are designed to enhance service quality and maintain superior standards of service.

  • This can only be achieved by creating systems and structures that are based on continuous assessment and evaluation.”

    • Phipps SE. Beyond measuring service quality: learning from the voices of the customers, the staff, the processes, and the organization. Libr Trends. 2001;49(4):635-61.

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Value multiple meanings
Value being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”- Multiple Meanings

  • An ideal accepted by an individual or group. [Librarians value information]

  • The quality (positive or negative) that makes something valuable. [Knowledge of another language had value to her career.]

  • To regard highly or hold dear. [ I value his judgment]

  • To place a value on or judge the worth of something or to fix or determine the value of or assign a value to. [The value of the jewelry is…]

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From http://www.visualthesaurus.com/ being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

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Value and benefit outcome and impact
Value and Benefit, being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”Outcome and Impact

  • Value

    • The importance or preciousness of something, the perception of actual or potential benefit.

  • Benefit

    • The helpful or useful effect that something has.

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Value and benefit outcome and impact1
Value and Benefit, being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”Outcome and Impact

  • Outcome

    • the consequence, visible or practical result or effect of an event or activity.

  • Impact

    • the effect or influence of one person, thing, or action, on another.

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Value and benefit outcome and impact2
Value and Benefit, being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”Outcome and Impact

  • Library Outcomes

    • the eventual result of using library services, the influence the use had, and its significance to the user.

      • Poll, Roswitha. Measuring impact and outcome of libraries. Perform Measur Metrics. 2003;4(1):2-12.

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Value
Value being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Marshall JG. Determining our worth, communicating our value. Libr J. 2000;125(19):28-30.

  • Marshall JG. Valuing Ourselves and Our Work in the Information Age. University of North Carolina. <www.sla.org/Presentations/sldc/joanne_LAB2002pp.ppt>

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Value concepts marshall
Value concepts - Marshall being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Components of a Librarian’s value proposition

    • the information user

    • the processes used to provide info access

    • research and discovery

    • technology as a tool

    • the human and financial resources required

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Practicing librarians
Practicing librarians being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Practicing librarians in “small” settings need to be generalists.

  • They hire, fire and evaluate personnel but they are not human resources experts.

  • They develop budgets and financial plans but they are not accountants.

  • They develop mission statements and strategic plans but they are not planning experts.

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Practicing librarians1
Practicing librarians being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • They can learn to do evaluation and assessment without being experts in that field.

  • They are experts in information storage and retrieval, with all the details that involves.

  • The experts in the field of library and information science evaluation and assessment will help all librarians report outcomes and impacts to their stakeholders.

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Current trends
Current Trends being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • Understand the goals of the organization

  • Understand the user - be customer focused - assess needs

  • Establish a culture of assessment

  • Use a variety of measures - old and new

  • Use outcomes to tell your story

C E N D I Principles Meeting


  • Full Bibliography and PowerPoint: being cut and cut, I can only think that American society has found one more way to destroy itself.”

  • http://info.nationaljewish.org/libraryinfo/

C E N D I Principles Meeting


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