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Objectives Locate and label physical features and e arly river civilizations of the Indus River Valley Explain how India’s geography impacted t he development of early settlements Discuss the PERSIA G of the Indus River Valley Civilization. 9/29 & 9/30. 2-2. The Indus River Valley.

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9/29 & 9/30

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  • Objectives

  • Locate and label physical features and

  • early river civilizations of the Indus River Valley

  • Explain how India’s geography impacted

  • the development of early settlements

  • Discuss the PERSIA G of the Indus River

  • Valley Civilization

9/29 & 9/30


The Indus River Valley

Indus River

On what continent is India?


How would you describe the

Geography of India? Take 30

seconds and talk to your neighbor.

Important geographic features:

  • Mountains:

  • Himalayas

  • Hindu-Kush

  • Karakoram

  • Rivers:

  • Indus

  • Ganges

  • Other features:

  • Deccan plateau

  • Eastern and

  • Western Ghats

  • Khyber pass

India is considered a subcontinent because:


  • It is surrounded on three sides by water (it is a peninsula)

  • Mountains to the northwest and northeast separate it from the rest of Asia

Hindu Kush


What are monsoons?

Winter and summer winds that blow across India

India in the summer

What geographic challenges

did the monsoons represent

for the first civilizations of India?

Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro

were the first civilizations of

India and they

developed on the Indus


Why did they

develop in this location?

Flooding along

the Indus River was

unpredictable. It did leave behind nutrient-rich silt which made the soil fertile for farming.

Harappa and

Mohenjo-Daro developed

around 3200 BCE.

Historians know less about Harappa and

Mohenjo-Daro because

the writing system has

never been decoded.


What they do know comes

from these excavated cities. The cities were planned.

How do we know this? Why is that important?


  • Traded long distances

  • Artifacts found show that Sumer and Indus traded for about 350 years


  • Artifacts show links to modern Hindu Culture

    • Shiva- is a major Hindu god

  • Worshipped Cows

Cows are sacred today

in India


Politically, planned cities suggest a centralized government.

What can you infer about society if all of the houses were the same size?

There were few differences between social classes –

There was no wealthy ruling class


This is also from


Anyone want to guess

what it is?

It’s a toilet. Indoor plumbing was an achievement of

the Indus River civilizations.

The great bath and granary at Mohenjo-Daro


  • Sophisticated city planning – very detailed and organized

    • Used a grid system

  • Citadel – a fortified area surrounded by a wall that protected the major buildings in the city

    • Public buildings, bath, granaries and religious quarters

  • By 1750 BCE, The Indus River civilizations had declined. No one really knows why. Theories surrounding the decline:

  • Sudden natural disaster

  • Overfarming

  • Invasion, possibly by an Indo-European people called the Aryans.

The Ganges River in the east would become the center of later civilizations in India.











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