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Objectives Locate and label physical features and e arly river civilizations of the Indus River Valley Explain how India’s geography impacted t he development of early settlements Discuss the PERSIA G of the Indus River Valley Civilization. 9/29 & 9/30. 2-2. The Indus River Valley.

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9/29 & 9/30

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9 29 9 30

  • Objectives

  • Locate and label physical features and

  • early river civilizations of the Indus River Valley

  • Explain how India’s geography impacted

  • the development of early settlements

  • Discuss the PERSIA G of the Indus River

  • Valley Civilization

9/29 & 9/30


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2-2

The Indus River Valley

Indus River


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On what continent is India?

Asia

How would you describe the

Geography of India? Take 30

seconds and talk to your neighbor.


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Important geographic features:

  • Mountains:

  • Himalayas

  • Hindu-Kush

  • Karakoram

  • Rivers:

  • Indus

  • Ganges

  • Other features:

  • Deccan plateau

  • Eastern and

  • Western Ghats

  • Khyber pass


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India is considered a subcontinent because:

Karakoram

  • It is surrounded on three sides by water (it is a peninsula)

  • Mountains to the northwest and northeast separate it from the rest of Asia

Hindu Kush

Himalayas

What are monsoons?

Winter and summer winds that blow across India


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India in the summer


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What geographic challenges

did the monsoons represent

for the first civilizations of India?


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Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro

were the first civilizations of

India and they

developed on the Indus

River.

Why did they

develop in this location?


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Flooding along

the Indus River was

unpredictable. It did leave behind nutrient-rich silt which made the soil fertile for farming.

Harappa and

Mohenjo-Daro developed

around 3200 BCE.


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Historians know less about Harappa and

Mohenjo-Daro because

the writing system has

never been decoded.


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Political

What they do know comes

from these excavated cities. The cities were planned.

How do we know this? Why is that important?


Economic

Economic

  • Traded long distances

  • Artifacts found show that Sumer and Indus traded for about 350 years


Religious

Religious

  • Artifacts show links to modern Hindu Culture

    • Shiva- is a major Hindu god

  • Worshipped Cows


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Cows are sacred today

in India


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Society

Politically, planned cities suggest a centralized government.

What can you infer about society if all of the houses were the same size?

There were few differences between social classes –

There was no wealthy ruling class


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Achievements

This is also from

Mohenjo-Daro.

Anyone want to guess

what it is?

It’s a toilet. Indoor plumbing was an achievement of

the Indus River civilizations.


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The great bath and granary at Mohenjo-Daro


Achievements

Achievements

  • Sophisticated city planning – very detailed and organized

    • Used a grid system

  • Citadel – a fortified area surrounded by a wall that protected the major buildings in the city

    • Public buildings, bath, granaries and religious quarters


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  • By 1750 BCE, The Indus River civilizations had declined. No one really knows why. Theories surrounding the decline:

  • Sudden natural disaster

  • Overfarming

  • Invasion, possibly by an Indo-European people called the Aryans.

The Ganges River in the east would become the center of later civilizations in India.


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https://cougar.collegiate-va.org/psinkler/indus_valley/valley_map.jpg

http://www.glogster.com/media/4/25/77/41/25774100.jpg

http://nimg.sulekha.com/others/original700/india-monsoons-2009-6-30-6-20-51.jpg

http://i85.servimg.com/u/f85/13/45/78/37/harapp10.jpg

http://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/ancient/images/sw/mohenjo-daro-pakistan-sw.jpg

http://www.imagesofasia.com/html/mohenjodaro/images/large/toilet.jpg

http://www.iloveworldhistory.com/index.php?action=resources&id=3

http://cdn8.wn.com/o25/ar/i/25/6b1b4007e9514a.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Indus_river_from_karakouram_highway.jpg/800px-Indus_river_from_karakouram_highway.jpg

http://www.sewerhistory.org/images/w/wam/moh_wam15.jpg


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