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The Ideological War. The Four Freedoms (1941). War and the American State. Mass mobilization Unemployment plummets Massive expansion of govt Founding of military-industrial complex. Trouble Brewing. Japan invades China (1931) Mussolini invades Ethiopia (1935) League of Nations powerless

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war and the american state
War and the American State
  • Mass mobilization
  • Unemployment plummets
  • Massive expansion of govt
  • Founding of military-industrial complex
trouble brewing
Trouble Brewing
  • Japan invades China (1931)
  • Mussolini invades Ethiopia (1935)
  • League of Nations powerless
  • Fascist Francisco Franco leads rebellion against democratic govt in Spain
revanchism
Revanchism
  • French for “revenge”
  • Hitler wants to reunite Germanic peoples, annexes Austria
  • Flouts Treaty of Versailles by pursuing massive rearmament
  • Supports Mussolini and Franco
  • UK and France want to avoid war, follow policy of “appeasement” toward Hitler
  • Takes over Czechoslovakia (1938-9)
reluctance
Reluctance
  • Americans believed WWI was mistake
  • Many companies did business with Germany and Japan
  • Some Italian and German-Americans supported fascists
  • Irish-Americans still hated Britain
slide11
1939

I sit in one of the divesOn Fifty-second StreetUncertain and afraidAs the clever hopes expireOf a low dishonest decade: Waves of anger and fear Circulate over the brightAnd darkened lands of the earth, Obsessing our private lives;The unmentionable odour of death Offends the September night.

W.H. Auden

last straw
Last Straw
  • Hitler invades Poland (1939)
  • UK, France declare war
  • Nazis overrun Scandinavia, Belgium, Netherlands
  • Occupy Paris by 1940
  • Germany, Italy, Japan join forces (the Axis)
arc de capitulation
Arc de Capitulation
  • “Vichy” govt collaborates with Nazis in France
  • UK stands alone
  • Battle of Britain
  • Winston Churchill
    • Conservative Prime Minister
pearl harbor
Pearl Harbor
  • Japan attacks US base in Hawaii
  • Dec 7, 1941: “a day that will live in infamy”
  • Destroys US battleships and kills 2000 Americans
  • FDR declares war
  • Germany declares war on us next day
two theatres
Two Theatres
  • Most American troops in Pacific
  • Need to reverse Japanese advance
  • Japan took Philippines, Guam, etc.
  • US and UK invade North Africa to fight Germans and Italians
the battle for europe
The Battle for Europe
  • D-Day (6/6/1944) – huge invasion of France
  • 200k American, British, Canadian troops land on beaches of Normandy
  • 1 million follow
  • Biggest land-sea operation in history
  • Paris liberated by August
the war at home
The War at Home
  • Govt workers quadruple to 4 million
  • High taxes to support war
  • Govt coordinates war production
  • Car plants converted to making tanks, planes
rosie the riveter
Rosie the Riveter
  • 15 million men in military
  • Women = 1/3 of workforce
  • Some wanted to stay working after war
  • But men saw this as temporary
war for freedom
War for Freedom?
  • Japanese-Americans forced into internment camps
civil rights
Civil Rights
  • Labor leader Randolph plans March on Washington (1941) to protest discrimination in war industries, military
  • FDR issues executive order
  • Fair Employment Practices Commission
  • 1st federal agency since Reconstruction to seek equal opportunity for African Americans
endgame
Endgame
  • Allies setback at Battle of the Bulge (late 1944)
  • Bloodiest battle for US
  • Allies press advantage in 1945
  • Soviet and Polish troops capture Berlin and Germany surrenders
  • “V-E Day” – 5/8/45
defeating japan
Defeating Japan
  • US retakes Philippines and other islands (1945)
  • Firebombs Japanese cities and cuts off imports with submarines
  • Shocks world by dropping two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (8/6/45 and 8/9/45)
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