Peopling the land
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Peopling the Land. Topic 2.1. Creation Stories. There are two approaches to the question; How did humans populate the earth? Many cultures have creation stories or beliefs that suggest some sort of intelligent design, usually by a god(s) See story page 88 – The Origin of Man and the Animals

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Peopling the Land

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Peopling the Land

Topic 2.1


Creation Stories

There are two approaches to the question; How did humans populate the earth?

  • Many cultures have creation stories or beliefs that suggest some sort of intelligent design, usually by a god(s) See story page 88 – The Origin of Man and the Animals

  • Scientists approach the question using scientific data; humans first evolved in Africa 200 000 years ago and spread around the world


How did humans get from Africa to the Americas?

  • One theory is people crossed on a land bridge – Beringia – that connected Siberia to Alaska.

  • This occurred 9000 to 50 000 years ago during the last ice age.

  • These people spread across the Americas and diversified into many culturally distinct groups.


Old World vs. New World

  • Beringia disappeared beneath the sea and the Americas were isolated from the rest of the world

  • At the end of the 15th century there were two huge groups of people on two landmasses oblivious to the existence of each other.

  • Old World – parts of the world known only to Europeans, Asians and Africans

  • New World – the Americas and Oceania


Population Distribution

  • At the end of the 15th century there were approx. 40-60 million people living in the Americas – New World

  • Most were in Mexico and Peru

  • Most people lived an agrarian (farming) lifestyle

  • There were a few large centers; Tenochtitlan –Aztec city (Mexico City) & Machu Picchu – Incan city (Peru)

  • In other areas people were hunter-gatherers


Hunter-Gatherer Lifestyles

  • Hunter-gatherers need 10sq. Km to survive. As the population density increased they had to move around to find new resources.

  • Groups spread out in response to conflict b/w groups and changes in environmental conditions.

  • There was extensive trade between various groups

  • Trade allowed groups to share resources from their areas and to build alliances.


Trading Items

  • Dried fish

  • Maize

  • Beans

  • Obsidian

  • Chert

  • Shells

  • Pottery

  • Knives and needles


Meanwhile in the Old World in the 1500s

  • The population in Europe was 80-100 million

  • Most people lived in an agrarian and rural settings

  • At this time Europe experienced a population growth

  • As the demand for resources increased Europeans began to look outward – the New World – for resources.


Assignment

  • Questions 1,2,3,4 page 113


Who Was Here?

Topic 2.2

Pages 114-119


Who was in Newfoundland and Labrador?

  • The first human residents are believed to have arrived in 7000 BCE

  • Various groups migrated through the province over the next several 1000s of years

  • The first groups were AmerIndians and Paleo-Eskimos

  • Later groups were the Thule and the Norse


AmerIndians

  • Descendants of the people who migrated across the Beringia land bridge

  • These groups include: Labrador Archaic, the Maritime Archiac, Intermediate Indians and Recent Indians

  • It is not known what happened to cause the disappearance of each of these groups.


Paleo-Eskimos (“old Eskimo”)

  • Moved to northern Labrador 2100 BCE

  • These people are believed to have migrated from Greenland or the high Arctic

  • The first group are known as “Pre-Dorset”

  • Lived in sheltered inner harbours along the Labrador coast

  • This group declined c. 1500BCE

  • They were replaced by the “Groswater Paleo-Eskimo” c.800 BCE and lived here until 100BCE in Labrador and 100CE in Newfoundland


Paleo-Eskimo c0nt….

  • A new culture, the Dorset Paleo-Eskimo, arrived in Labrador from the north

  • Dorset sites are distributed along the entire coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador

  • By 1300CE the Dorset had disappeared from the province, no one knows why


Thule

  • 600 years ago the Thule arrived in Labrador from northern Alaska, migrating across the Arctic and Greenland

  • They adapted their lifestyle to fit the Labrador environment and formed a distinct cultural group – Labrador Inuit


Prehistoric Technologies

  • The early peoples of NL developed technologies to help them survive in their environment

  • Tools were made from available materials: stone, wood, animal products


Activity

Page 118-119

Question 3


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