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Increasing Student E ngagement :   3 E vidence-based I nstructional S trategies . Lori Rayburn-Dehart, BCBA Behavior Consultant KEDC Big East Cooperative. Outcomes. Participants will be able to describe the impact of opportunities to respond on student outcomes

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increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

Increasing Student Engagement:  3 Evidence-based Instructional Strategies

Lori Rayburn-Dehart, BCBA

Behavior Consultant

KEDC

Big East Cooperative

outcomes
Outcomes
  • Participants will be able to describe the impact of opportunities to respond on student outcomes
  • Participants will be able to implement effective strategies that actively engage learners in instruction
slide3

Shortly after science class started, the teacher announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48)

evidence based practices
Evidence-Based Practices

1. Maximize structure

2. Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations

3. Active engagement

4. Acknowledge appropriate behaviors

5. Establish continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior

Evidence-based Practices in Classroom Management: Considerations for Research to Practice Simonsen, Brandi; Fairbanks, Sarah; Briesch, Amy; Myers, Diane; Sugai, George Aug 1, 2008 Education & Treatment of Children

classwide interventions http ebi missouri edu cat 22
Classwide Interventionshttp://ebi.missouri.edu/?cat=22
  • Response Cost Raffle
  • Randomized Group Contingency
  • The Good Behavior Game
  • Positive Peer Reporting
  • Classwide Antecedent Modifications
activity
Activity
  • Review briefs & videos together
  • In pairs
    • Review each brief (5)
    • Compare/contract the briefs
      • You can use a graphic organizer
slide8

Read a detailed description of the Teach-Okay at:

http://wholebrainteaching.com/Whole-Brain-Teching/First-Steps/Whole-Brain-Developer-Teach-OK.html

Lesson: Teach-Okay

slide9

When I say “Class!,” you say “Yes!”

Class!

Students answer, “Yes!”

slide10

However I say “Class!” that’s how you say “Yes!”

Class! Class!

Students answer, “Yes! Yes!”

slide11

Classity Class!

Students answer, “Yesity! Yes!”

slide12

Class-a-doodle-do!

Students answer, “Yes-a-doodle-do!”

slide14

Class!

  • Students answer, “Yes!”
slide15

When I say “Teach!” you say “Okay!”

Teach!

  • Students answer, “Okay!”
slide16

If I clap twice and say “Teach,” you clap twice and say “Okay!”

  • Clap Clap

Teach!

  • Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!”
slide17

Class!

Students answer, “Yes!”

slide18

Let’s try that again ... only faster!

Clap Clap

Teach!

Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!”

academic learning time is
Academic Learning Time is…

The time that students are directly engaged in meaningful activities that are related to the curriculum sequence and have successful outcomes.

opportunities to respond otr
Opportunities To Respond (OTR)
  • The number of times the teacher provides academic requests that require students to actively respond (Miller, 2009; Sprick, Knight, Reinke, & McKale, 2006)
  • A teacher behavior that prompts or solicits a student response (Simonsen et al., 2008))
  • Result in positive behavioral and academic outcomes
  • Allows teacher insight
benefits of otr
Benefits of OTR
  • High rates of OTR can lead to improved academic performance. This is a result of improved student engagement and effective instruction.

Student Engagement

Academic Performance

Effective Instruction

related to behavior
Related to Behavior
  • Increases student engagement with instruction
  • Allows for high rates of positive, specific feedback related to behavior
  • Limits time for engaging in inappropriate behavior
  • Results in more effective use of instructional time
related to academics
Related to Academics
  • Can be used as a quick assessment to guide teaching/lesson direction
  • Provides teacher information on student understanding/thought process
  • Allows teacher to correct errors in knowledge/understanding
  • Evidence of gains in Reading and Math (e.g. mastery, rate, etc.)
slide26

Class!

Students answer, “Yes!”

slide27

If I clap twice and say “Teach,” you clap twice and say “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them about opportunities to respond! Remember to use your gestures!

Clap Clap

Teach!

  • Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!” and then using gestures, teach their neighbors the about Opportunities to Respond
slide28

Class!

Students answer, “Yes!”

slide29

Try it again. Teach your neighbor about opportunties to respond... with BIG GESTURES!

Clap Clap

Teach!

Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!” and then using BIGGESTURES, teach their neighbors about Opportunities to Respond.

slide30

One more time. Use a FULL TURN. Teach your neighbor about Opportunities to Respond ... with BIG GESTURES!

Clap Clap

Teach!

Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!” and then using BIGGESTURES, teach their neighbors about Opportunities to Respond.

slide31

ClassityClass

Students answer, “Yesity! Yes!”

slide32

Teach!

Clap Clap

From now on, the little sign below will be used for the “clap, clap teach!”

Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!”

and then tell their neighbors about the little sign.

Students answer, “Yesity! Yes!”

rate of otr
Rate of OTR
  • New Material
    • 4-6 Responses per minute
    • 80% accuracy
  • Practice
    • 9-12 Student responses per minute
    • 90% accuracy
types of otr
Types of OTR
  • Verbal--Involves vocal output

vs.

  • Non-Verbal--Involves action (no verbalizations)
  • Individual—by oneself

vs.

  • Group—with others or while others do it
opportunity to respond
Opportunity to Respond

Non-Verbal

Orally answering a question, sharing thoughts, summarizing, repeating,

Writing

Performing an action

Moving about room

Verbal

high quality feedback
High Quality Feedback
  • Timely
  • Specific
  • Related to Response
  • Targeted
  • Informative
verbal otr
Verbal OTR
  • Individual Question/Response Pattern
  • Choral Responding
individual vs group otr
Individual vs. Group OTR

Individual

  • Allows teacher to know what EACH student thinks; targeted

Group

  • Provides ALL students the opportunity to answer without “risk”; engages everyone
elements of choral responding
Elements of choral responding

Students must be able to:

  • respond with short, one to three word, answers, and
  • only one correct answer is ideal.
enhancing effectiveness of choral responding
Enhancing Effectiveness of Choral Responding
  • the teacher, providing a thinking pause,
  • using a clear signal of when to respond,
  • provide feedback, and
  • from time to time call on individual students
how to implement choral responding brief choral responding
How To Implement Choral Responding - Brief “Choral Responding”
  • Model the question and the way to respond
  • Ask a clear question with a single word or simple phrase answer
  • Give a clear signal for students to respond (allow think time for difficult responses)
  • Scan all mouths to assure all are responding, moving near non-responders
  • Give feedback on the group response
  • Fast-pace
non verbal otr
Non-Verbal OTR
  • Response Cards/Response Systems
    • Pre-printed, Write-on, Cover part
  • Movement Activities/Signaling
      • Sit/Stand, Thumbs Up/Down, Other Action, 4 Corners
  • Guided Notes
    • http://rti2.org/rti2/guided_notes
    • http://www.interventioncentral.org/index.php/study-org/221-guided-notes
    • http://montgomeryschoolsmd.org/departments/hiat/tech_quick_guides/Word_Guided_Notes.pdf
  • Computer Assisted Instruction
guided notes
Guided Notes

Lecture outlines with spaces where students write definitions, facts, and/or concepts during instruction

why use guided notes
Why Use Guided Notes?

Guided Notes increase students’ active engagement with course content.

  • To complete their Guided Notes, students must actively respond to the lecture’s content by listening, looking, thinking, and writing.
why use guided notes1
Why Use Guided Notes?

Students who make frequent, lesson-relevant responses learn more than students who are passive observers.

why use guided notes2
Why Use Guided Notes?
  • Students can more easily identify the most important information.
  • Students are more likely to ask the instructor questions.
  • Students earn higher quiz and exam scores with Guided Notes.
why use guided notes3
Why Use Guided Notes?
  • Guided Notes can serve as an advance organizer for students.
  • Guided Notes help teachers prioritize and limit lecture content.
  • Guided Notes content can be easily converted into formative and summative assessments.

Clap Clap

TEACH!

frequently asked questions about guided notes
Frequently Asked Questions About Guided Notes

Q: Isn’t providing students with guided notes making it too easy for them? Are we just “spoon-feeding” them the information?

Q: Why not just pass out an outline of my lecture or a copy of the guided notes already completed?

non verbal otr1
Non-Verbal OTR
  • Response Cards/Response Systems
    • Pre-printed, Write-on, Cover part
  • Movement Activities/Signaling
      • Sit/Stand, Thumbs Up/Down, Other Action, 4 Corners
  • Guided Notes
    • http://rti2.org/rti2/guided_notes
    • http://www.interventioncentral.org/index.php/study-org/221-guided-notes
    • http://montgomeryschoolsmd.org/departments/hiat/tech_quick_guides/Word_Guided_Notes.pdf
  • Computer Assisted Instruction
response card
ResponseCard

A response card requires a student to write a brief answer to a question.

response card1
ResponseCard
  • Can be used throughout your entire lesson.
  • Each response is meant to be QUICK!
  • Can be used as a formative assessment.
  • Can invite individual oral response, pair share &/or Table Talk
response card2
ResponseCard
  • Elicit active responses from all students simultaneously;
  • Demonstrate student understanding of the information taught; and
  • Make informed instructional decisions based on students responses.
procedures for response cards
Procedures for Response Cards

1. Train students in the use of their response cards.

    • “Jot Down Your Answers” – Students write their answers.
    • “Cards Up” – Students raise response cards above their heads, facing teacher.
    • “Cards Down” – Students place response cards face down.

2. After new material has been introduced

    • write their responses on their cards.

3. prompt students as a class to hold their response cards above their heads.

4. Provide praise and/or corrective feedback for student responses.

  • Use Positive Responding – If all answers are correct, provide praise to the class. If some answers are correct, praise the correct response.

5. Interchange questions that are review with questions that relate to new material.

examples
Examples
  • “Yes/True” on one side and “No/False” on the other
  • A, B, C, D cards for multiple choice questions
  • Cards with subject-specific terms (parts of speech, scientific classifications, historical periods, formulas, etc.)
s socrative com
s.socrative.com
  • Socrativeis a smart student response system that empowers teachers to engage their classrooms through a series of educational exercises and games via smartphones, laptops, and tablets.
response c ard
ResponseCard

After watching the video…

Which multiple response strategy would you use to foster student engagement and why?

consider this
Consider this …

If response cards were used instead of handraising for just 30 minutes per day, each student would make more than 3,700 additional academic responses during the school year.

response card3
Response Card

Let’s Make and Take

opportunities to respond what it is
Opportunities to RespondWhat it is…

ALLstudents are doing, answering, speaking, writing, signaling, performing… showing in some way that they have interacted with the instruction.

Teacher Prompts:

  • Think about…Tell your partner
  • Everyone, say the word
  • Everyone write, then show
  • Tell your partner how many steps there are in…
  • You just heard a lot of information. Think about the three main elements. Tell your partner why these elements are important to…
for monday
For Monday…
  • Think about what you have heard today. Is there anything that you can use?
  • What can be (easily) implemented into your own classroom/setting?
  • How will you use/do this?
  • What do you wish would have been included in the presentation or what do you wish there would have been more about?
slide72

“In the end, which of these active participation or passage-reading procedures you select is less important than offering a large number of opportunities to respond and keeping ALL students involved. To be truly effective, instruction must be interactive. This constant involvement not only improves learning, but also reduces management problems and makes instruction more enjoyable for both the students and the teacher.” Archer and Hughes (2011) p. 172.

whole brain teaching chris biffle
Whole Brain TeachingChris Biffle

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dfS6aNdG0k4

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whole brain teaching chris biffle part 2
Whole Brain TeachingChris BifflePart 2

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dfS6aNdG0k4

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opportunities to respond
Opportunities to Respond

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GJrAkrronr8

references
References

Archer, A. & Hughes, C. (2011). Explicit instruction. New York: Guilford Press.

Blackwell, A.J. & Mclaughlin, T.F. (2005). Using guided notes, choral responding, and response cards to increase student performance. The International Journal of Special Education,

20, 1-5.

Conroy, M.A., Sutherland, K.S., Snyder, A.L., & Marsh, S. (2008). Classwide interventions: Effective instruction makes a difference. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40, 24-30.

Hall, T. (2002). Explicit instruction: Effective classroom practices report. Retrieved from http://aim.cast.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/explicit_instruction

Haydon, T., Borders, C., Embury, D., & Clarke, L. (2009). Using effective instructional delivery as a classwide management tool. Beyond Behavior, 18, 12-17.

references1
References

Haydon,T., Mancil, G.R., & Van Loan, C. (2009). Using opportunities to respond in a general education classroom: A case study. Education and Treatment of Children, 32, 267-278.Jones, M.(2011). Improving Behavior and Impacting Learning through Opportunities to Respond. Retrieved from: http://www.ilccbd.pbworks.com/.../ILCCBD+11+Improving+Behavior+OTR+for+W

Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (n.d.) Effective classroom practice: Active engagement of students: Multiple opportunities to respond. Retrieved from http://pbismissouri.org/class.html

www.explicitinstruction.org

Scott, Terry (2013). ABC/UBI Probability Equation. Retreived from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xIiZ9H3DIsE

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