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Increasing Student E ngagement :   3 E vidence-based I nstructional S trategies . Lori Rayburn-Dehart, BCBA Behavior Consultant KEDC Big East Cooperative. Outcomes. Participants will be able to describe the impact of opportunities to respond on student outcomes

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Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

Increasing Student Engagement:  3 Evidence-based Instructional Strategies

Lori Rayburn-Dehart, BCBA

Behavior Consultant

KEDC

Big East Cooperative


Outcomes
Outcomes

  • Participants will be able to describe the impact of opportunities to respond on student outcomes

  • Participants will be able to implement effective strategies that actively engage learners in instruction


Shortly after science class started, the teacher announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48)


Evidence based practices
Evidence-Based Practices announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48)

1. Maximize structure

2. Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations

3. Active engagement

4. Acknowledge appropriate behaviors

5. Establish continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior

Evidence-based Practices in Classroom Management: Considerations for Research to Practice Simonsen, Brandi; Fairbanks, Sarah; Briesch, Amy; Myers, Diane; Sugai, George Aug 1, 2008 Education & Treatment of Children


Classwide interventions
Classwide announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48) Interventions


Classwide interventions http ebi missouri edu cat 22
Classwide announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48) Interventionshttp://ebi.missouri.edu/?cat=22

  • Response Cost Raffle

  • Randomized Group Contingency

  • The Good Behavior Game

  • Positive Peer Reporting

  • Classwide Antecedent Modifications


Activity
Activity announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48)

  • Review briefs & videos together

  • In pairs

    • Review each brief (5)

    • Compare/contract the briefs

      • You can use a graphic organizer


Read a detailed description of the Teach-Okay at: announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48)

http://wholebrainteaching.com/Whole-Brain-Teching/First-Steps/Whole-Brain-Developer-Teach-OK.html

Lesson: Teach-Okay


When I say “Class!,” you say “Yes!” announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48)

Class!

Students answer, “Yes!”


However I say “Class!” that’s how you say “Yes!” announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48)

Class! Class!

Students answer, “Yes! Yes!”


Classity Class! announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48)

Students answer, “Yesity! Yes!”


Class-a-doodle-do! announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48)

Students answer, “Yes-a-doodle-do!”


Now, let’s learn about the Teach-Okay. announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48)Please have fun!


Class! announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48)

  • Students answer, “Yes!”


  • When I say “Teach!” you say “Okay!” announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48)

Teach!

  • Students answer, “Okay!”


  • Clap Clap

Teach!

  • Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!”


Class! “Okay!”

Students answer, “Yes!”


Clap Clap

Teach!

Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!”


Academic learning time is
Academic Learning Time is… “Okay!”

The time that students are directly engaged in meaningful activities that are related to the curriculum sequence and have successful outcomes.



Opportunities to respond otr
Opportunities To Respond (OTR) “Okay!”

  • The number of times the teacher provides academic requests that require students to actively respond (Miller, 2009; Sprick, Knight, Reinke, & McKale, 2006)

  • A teacher behavior that prompts or solicits a student response (Simonsen et al., 2008))

  • Result in positive behavioral and academic outcomes

  • Allows teacher insight


Benefits of otr
Benefits of OTR “Okay!”

  • High rates of OTR can lead to improved academic performance. This is a result of improved student engagement and effective instruction.

Student Engagement

Academic Performance

Effective Instruction


Related to behavior
Related to Behavior “Okay!”

  • Increases student engagement with instruction

  • Allows for high rates of positive, specific feedback related to behavior

  • Limits time for engaging in inappropriate behavior

  • Results in more effective use of instructional time


Related to academics
Related to Academics “Okay!”

  • Can be used as a quick assessment to guide teaching/lesson direction

  • Provides teacher information on student understanding/thought process

  • Allows teacher to correct errors in knowledge/understanding

  • Evidence of gains in Reading and Math (e.g. mastery, rate, etc.)


Easy as abc
Easy as ABC “Okay!”


Class! “Okay!”

Students answer, “Yes!”


Clap Clap

Teach!

  • Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!” and then using gestures, teach their neighbors the about Opportunities to Respond


Class! “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

Students answer, “Yes!”


Try it again. Teach your neighbor “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them about opportunties to respond... with BIG GESTURES!

Clap Clap

Teach!

Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!” and then using BIGGESTURES, teach their neighbors about Opportunities to Respond.


One more time. Use a “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them FULL TURN. Teach your neighbor about Opportunities to Respond ... with BIG GESTURES!

Clap Clap

Teach!

Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!” and then using BIGGESTURES, teach their neighbors about Opportunities to Respond.


Classity “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them Class

Students answer, “Yesity! Yes!”


Teach “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them !

Clap Clap

From now on, the little sign below will be used for the “clap, clap teach!”

Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!”

and then tell their neighbors about the little sign.

Students answer, “Yesity! Yes!”


Rate of otr
Rate of OTR “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

  • New Material

    • 4-6 Responses per minute

    • 80% accuracy

  • Practice

    • 9-12 Student responses per minute

    • 90% accuracy


Types of otr
Types of OTR “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

  • Verbal--Involves vocal output

    vs.

  • Non-Verbal--Involves action (no verbalizations)

  • Individual—by oneself

    vs.

  • Group—with others or while others do it


Opportunity to respond
Opportunity to Respond “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

Non-Verbal

Orally answering a question, sharing thoughts, summarizing, repeating,

Writing

Performing an action

Moving about room

Verbal


High quality feedback
High Quality Feedback “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

  • Timely

  • Specific

  • Related to Response

  • Targeted

  • Informative


Verbal otr
Verbal OTR “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

  • Individual Question/Response Pattern

  • Choral Responding


Individual vs group otr
Individual vs. Group OTR “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

Individual

  • Allows teacher to know what EACH student thinks; targeted

Group

  • Provides ALL students the opportunity to answer without “risk”; engages everyone


Elements of choral responding
Elements of choral responding “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

Students must be able to:

  • respond with short, one to three word, answers, and

  • only one correct answer is ideal.


Enhancing effectiveness of choral responding
Enhancing Effectiveness of Choral Responding “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

  • the teacher, providing a thinking pause,

  • using a clear signal of when to respond,

  • provide feedback, and

  • from time to time call on individual students


How to implement choral responding brief choral responding
How To Implement Choral Responding - “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them Brief “Choral Responding”

  • Model the question and the way to respond

  • Ask a clear question with a single word or simple phrase answer

  • Give a clear signal for students to respond (allow think time for difficult responses)

  • Scan all mouths to assure all are responding, moving near non-responders

  • Give feedback on the group response

  • Fast-pace


Video clip choral responding
Video Clip Choral Responding “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them


Non verbal otr
Non-Verbal OTR “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

  • Response Cards/Response Systems

    • Pre-printed, Write-on, Cover part

  • Movement Activities/Signaling

    • Sit/Stand, Thumbs Up/Down, Other Action, 4 Corners

  • Guided Notes

    • http://rti2.org/rti2/guided_notes

    • http://www.interventioncentral.org/index.php/study-org/221-guided-notes

    • http://montgomeryschoolsmd.org/departments/hiat/tech_quick_guides/Word_Guided_Notes.pdf

  • Computer Assisted Instruction


  • Guided notes
    Guided Notes “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

    Lecture outlines with spaces where students write definitions, facts, and/or concepts during instruction


    Why use guided notes
    Why Use Guided Notes? “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

    Guided Notes increase students’ active engagement with course content.

    • To complete their Guided Notes, students must actively respond to the lecture’s content by listening, looking, thinking, and writing.


    Why use guided notes1
    Why Use Guided Notes? “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

    Students who make frequent, lesson-relevant responses learn more than students who are passive observers.


    Why use guided notes2
    Why Use Guided Notes? “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

    • Students can more easily identify the most important information.

    • Students are more likely to ask the instructor questions.

    • Students earn higher quiz and exam scores with Guided Notes.


    Why use guided notes3
    Why Use Guided Notes? “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

    • Guided Notes can serve as an advance organizer for students.

    • Guided Notes help teachers prioritize and limit lecture content.

    • Guided Notes content can be easily converted into formative and summative assessments.

    Clap Clap

    TEACH!


    Frequently asked questions about guided notes
    Frequently Asked Questions About Guided Notes “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

    Q: Isn’t providing students with guided notes making it too easy for them? Are we just “spoon-feeding” them the information?

    Q: Why not just pass out an outline of my lecture or a copy of the guided notes already completed?


    Non verbal otr1
    Non-Verbal OTR “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

    • Response Cards/Response Systems

      • Pre-printed, Write-on, Cover part

    • Movement Activities/Signaling

      • Sit/Stand, Thumbs Up/Down, Other Action, 4 Corners

  • Guided Notes

    • http://rti2.org/rti2/guided_notes

    • http://www.interventioncentral.org/index.php/study-org/221-guided-notes

    • http://montgomeryschoolsmd.org/departments/hiat/tech_quick_guides/Word_Guided_Notes.pdf

  • Computer Assisted Instruction


  • Response card
    Response “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them Card

    A response card requires a student to write a brief answer to a question.


    Response card1
    Response “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them Card

    • Can be used throughout your entire lesson.

    • Each response is meant to be QUICK!

    • Can be used as a formative assessment.

    • Can invite individual oral response, pair share &/or Table Talk


    Response card2
    Response “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them Card

    • Elicit active responses from all students simultaneously;

    • Demonstrate student understanding of the information taught; and

    • Make informed instructional decisions based on students responses.


    Procedures for response cards
    Procedures for Response Cards “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

    1. Train students in the use of their response cards.

    • “Jot Down Your Answers” – Students write their answers.

    • “Cards Up” – Students raise response cards above their heads, facing teacher.

    • “Cards Down” – Students place response cards face down.

      2. After new material has been introduced

    • write their responses on their cards.

      3. prompt students as a class to hold their response cards above their heads.

      4. Provide praise and/or corrective feedback for student responses.

  • Use Positive Responding – If all answers are correct, provide praise to the class. If some answers are correct, praise the correct response.

    5. Interchange questions that are review with questions that relate to new material.


  • Examples
    Examples “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

    • “Yes/True” on one side and “No/False” on the other

    • A, B, C, D cards for multiple choice questions

    • Cards with subject-specific terms (parts of speech, scientific classifications, historical periods, formulas, etc.)


    Examples www reallygoodstuff com
    Examples “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them www.reallygoodstuff.com


    S socrative com
    s.socrative.com “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

    • Socrativeis a smart student response system that empowers teachers to engage their classrooms through a series of educational exercises and games via smartphones, laptops, and tablets.


    Response c ard
    Response “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them Card

    After watching the video…

    Which multiple response strategy would you use to foster student engagement and why?


    Consider this
    Consider this … “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

    If response cards were used instead of handraising for just 30 minutes per day, each student would make more than 3,700 additional academic responses during the school year.


    Response card3
    Response Card “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

    Let’s Make and Take


    Opportunities to respond what it is
    Opportunities to Respond “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them What it is…

    ALLstudents are doing, answering, speaking, writing, signaling, performing… showing in some way that they have interacted with the instruction.

    Teacher Prompts:

    • Think about…Tell your partner

    • Everyone, say the word

    • Everyone write, then show

    • Tell your partner how many steps there are in…

    • You just heard a lot of information. Think about the three main elements. Tell your partner why these elements are important to…


    For monday
    For Monday… “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them

    • Think about what you have heard today. Is there anything that you can use?

    • What can be (easily) implemented into your own classroom/setting?

    • How will you use/do this?

    • What do you wish would have been included in the presentation or what do you wish there would have been more about?


    “In the end, which of these active participation or passage-reading procedures you select is less important than offering a large number of opportunities to respond and keeping ALL students involved. To be truly effective, instruction must be interactive. This constant involvement not only improves learning, but also reduces management problems and makes instruction more enjoyable for both the students and the teacher.” Archer and Hughes (2011) p. 172.


    Whole brain teaching chris biffle
    Whole Brain Teaching passage-reading procedures you select is Chris Biffle

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dfS6aNdG0k4

    <object width="420" height="315"><param name="movie" value="//www.youtube.com/v/dfS6aNdG0k4?version=3&amp;hl=en_US&amp;rel=0"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="//www.youtube.com/v/dfS6aNdG0k4?version=3&amp;hl=en_US&amp;rel=0" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" width="420" height="315" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true"></embed></object>


    Whole brain teaching chris biffle part 2
    Whole Brain Teaching passage-reading procedures you select is Chris BifflePart 2

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dfS6aNdG0k4

    <object width="420" height="315"><param name="movie" value="//www.youtube.com/v/dfS6aNdG0k4?version=3&amp;hl=en_US&amp;rel=0"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="//www.youtube.com/v/dfS6aNdG0k4?version=3&amp;hl=en_US&amp;rel=0" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" width="420" height="315" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true"></embed></object>


    Opportunities to respond
    Opportunities to Respond passage-reading procedures you select is

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GJrAkrronr8


    References
    References passage-reading procedures you select is

    Archer, A. & Hughes, C. (2011). Explicit instruction. New York: Guilford Press.

    Blackwell, A.J. & Mclaughlin, T.F. (2005). Using guided notes, choral responding, and response cards to increase student performance. The International Journal of Special Education,

    20, 1-5.

    Conroy, M.A., Sutherland, K.S., Snyder, A.L., & Marsh, S. (2008). Classwide interventions: Effective instruction makes a difference. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40, 24-30.

    Hall, T. (2002). Explicit instruction: Effective classroom practices report. Retrieved from http://aim.cast.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/explicit_instruction

    Haydon, T., Borders, C., Embury, D., & Clarke, L. (2009). Using effective instructional delivery as a classwide management tool. Beyond Behavior, 18, 12-17.


    References1
    References passage-reading procedures you select is

    Haydon,T., Mancil, G.R., & Van Loan, C. (2009). Using opportunities to respond in a general education classroom: A case study. Education and Treatment of Children, 32, 267-278.Jones, M.(2011). Improving Behavior and Impacting Learning through Opportunities to Respond. Retrieved from: http://www.ilccbd.pbworks.com/.../ILCCBD+11+Improving+Behavior+OTR+for+W

    Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (n.d.) Effective classroom practice: Active engagement of students: Multiple opportunities to respond. Retrieved from http://pbismissouri.org/class.html

    www.explicitinstruction.org

    Scott, Terry (2013). ABC/UBI Probability Equation. Retreived from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xIiZ9H3DIsE


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