Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies
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Increasing Student E ngagement :   3 E vidence-based I nstructional S trategies . Lori Rayburn-Dehart, BCBA Behavior Consultant KEDC Big East Cooperative. Outcomes. Participants will be able to describe the impact of opportunities to respond on student outcomes

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Increasing Student E ngagement :   3 E vidence-based I nstructional S trategies

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Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

Increasing Student Engagement:  3 Evidence-based Instructional Strategies

Lori Rayburn-Dehart, BCBA

Behavior Consultant

KEDC

Big East Cooperative


Outcomes

Outcomes

  • Participants will be able to describe the impact of opportunities to respond on student outcomes

  • Participants will be able to implement effective strategies that actively engage learners in instruction


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

Shortly after science class started, the teacher announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48)


Evidence based practices

Evidence-Based Practices

1. Maximize structure

2. Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations

3. Active engagement

4. Acknowledge appropriate behaviors

5. Establish continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior

Evidence-based Practices in Classroom Management: Considerations for Research to Practice Simonsen, Brandi; Fairbanks, Sarah; Briesch, Amy; Myers, Diane; Sugai, George Aug 1, 2008 Education & Treatment of Children


Classwide interventions

Classwide Interventions


Classwide interventions http ebi missouri edu cat 22

Classwide Interventionshttp://ebi.missouri.edu/?cat=22

  • Response Cost Raffle

  • Randomized Group Contingency

  • The Good Behavior Game

  • Positive Peer Reporting

  • Classwide Antecedent Modifications


Activity

Activity

  • Review briefs & videos together

  • In pairs

    • Review each brief (5)

    • Compare/contract the briefs

      • You can use a graphic organizer


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

Read a detailed description of the Teach-Okay at:

http://wholebrainteaching.com/Whole-Brain-Teching/First-Steps/Whole-Brain-Developer-Teach-OK.html

Lesson: Teach-Okay


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

When I say “Class!,” you say “Yes!”

Class!

Students answer, “Yes!”


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

However I say “Class!” that’s how you say “Yes!”

Class! Class!

Students answer, “Yes! Yes!”


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

Classity Class!

Students answer, “Yesity! Yes!”


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

Class-a-doodle-do!

Students answer, “Yes-a-doodle-do!”


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

Now, let’s learn about the Teach-Okay. Please have fun!


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

Class!

  • Students answer, “Yes!”


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

  • When I say “Teach!” you say “Okay!”

Teach!

  • Students answer, “Okay!”


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

  • If I clap twice and say “Teach,” you clap twice and say “Okay!”

  • Clap Clap

Teach!

  • Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!”


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

Class!

Students answer, “Yes!”


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

  • Let’s try that again ... only faster!

Clap Clap

Teach!

Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!”


Academic learning time is

Academic Learning Time is…

The time that students are directly engaged in meaningful activities that are related to the curriculum sequence and have successful outcomes.


Dr terry scott talks about the probability equation

Dr. Terry Scott talks about the Probability Equation


Opportunities to respond otr

Opportunities To Respond (OTR)

  • The number of times the teacher provides academic requests that require students to actively respond (Miller, 2009; Sprick, Knight, Reinke, & McKale, 2006)

  • A teacher behavior that prompts or solicits a student response (Simonsen et al., 2008))

  • Result in positive behavioral and academic outcomes

  • Allows teacher insight


Benefits of otr

Benefits of OTR

  • High rates of OTR can lead to improved academic performance. This is a result of improved student engagement and effective instruction.

Student Engagement

Academic Performance

Effective Instruction


Related to behavior

Related to Behavior

  • Increases student engagement with instruction

  • Allows for high rates of positive, specific feedback related to behavior

  • Limits time for engaging in inappropriate behavior

  • Results in more effective use of instructional time


Related to academics

Related to Academics

  • Can be used as a quick assessment to guide teaching/lesson direction

  • Provides teacher information on student understanding/thought process

  • Allows teacher to correct errors in knowledge/understanding

  • Evidence of gains in Reading and Math (e.g. mastery, rate, etc.)


Easy as abc

Easy as ABC


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

Class!

Students answer, “Yes!”


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

  • If I clap twice and say “Teach,” you clap twice and say “Okay!” Then turn to your neighbors and teach them about opportunities to respond! Remember to use your gestures!

Clap Clap

Teach!

  • Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!” and then using gestures, teach their neighbors the about Opportunities to Respond


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

Class!

Students answer, “Yes!”


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

Try it again. Teach your neighbor about opportunties to respond... with BIG GESTURES!

Clap Clap

Teach!

Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!” and then using BIGGESTURES, teach their neighbors about Opportunities to Respond.


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

One more time. Use a FULL TURN. Teach your neighbor about Opportunities to Respond ... with BIG GESTURES!

Clap Clap

Teach!

Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!” and then using BIGGESTURES, teach their neighbors about Opportunities to Respond.


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

ClassityClass

Students answer, “Yesity! Yes!”


Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

Teach!

Clap Clap

From now on, the little sign below will be used for the “clap, clap teach!”

Students clap twice and answer, “Okay!”

and then tell their neighbors about the little sign.

Students answer, “Yesity! Yes!”


Rate of otr

Rate of OTR

  • New Material

    • 4-6 Responses per minute

    • 80% accuracy

  • Practice

    • 9-12 Student responses per minute

    • 90% accuracy


Types of otr

Types of OTR

  • Verbal--Involves vocal output

    vs.

  • Non-Verbal--Involves action (no verbalizations)

  • Individual—by oneself

    vs.

  • Group—with others or while others do it


Opportunity to respond

Opportunity to Respond

Non-Verbal

Orally answering a question, sharing thoughts, summarizing, repeating,

Writing

Performing an action

Moving about room

Verbal


High quality feedback

High Quality Feedback

  • Timely

  • Specific

  • Related to Response

  • Targeted

  • Informative


Verbal otr

Verbal OTR

  • Individual Question/Response Pattern

  • Choral Responding


Individual vs group otr

Individual vs. Group OTR

Individual

  • Allows teacher to know what EACH student thinks; targeted

Group

  • Provides ALL students the opportunity to answer without “risk”; engages everyone


Elements of choral responding

Elements of choral responding

Students must be able to:

  • respond with short, one to three word, answers, and

  • only one correct answer is ideal.


Enhancing effectiveness of choral responding

Enhancing Effectiveness of Choral Responding

  • the teacher, providing a thinking pause,

  • using a clear signal of when to respond,

  • provide feedback, and

  • from time to time call on individual students


How to implement choral responding brief choral responding

How To Implement Choral Responding - Brief “Choral Responding”

  • Model the question and the way to respond

  • Ask a clear question with a single word or simple phrase answer

  • Give a clear signal for students to respond (allow think time for difficult responses)

  • Scan all mouths to assure all are responding, moving near non-responders

  • Give feedback on the group response

  • Fast-pace


Video clip choral responding

Video Clip Choral Responding


Non verbal otr

Non-Verbal OTR

  • Response Cards/Response Systems

    • Pre-printed, Write-on, Cover part

  • Movement Activities/Signaling

    • Sit/Stand, Thumbs Up/Down, Other Action, 4 Corners

  • Guided Notes

    • http://rti2.org/rti2/guided_notes

    • http://www.interventioncentral.org/index.php/study-org/221-guided-notes

    • http://montgomeryschoolsmd.org/departments/hiat/tech_quick_guides/Word_Guided_Notes.pdf

  • Computer Assisted Instruction


  • Guided notes

    Guided Notes

    Lecture outlines with spaces where students write definitions, facts, and/or concepts during instruction


    Why use guided notes

    Why Use Guided Notes?

    Guided Notes increase students’ active engagement with course content.

    • To complete their Guided Notes, students must actively respond to the lecture’s content by listening, looking, thinking, and writing.


    Why use guided notes1

    Why Use Guided Notes?

    Students who make frequent, lesson-relevant responses learn more than students who are passive observers.


    Why use guided notes2

    Why Use Guided Notes?

    • Students can more easily identify the most important information.

    • Students are more likely to ask the instructor questions.

    • Students earn higher quiz and exam scores with Guided Notes.


    Why use guided notes3

    Why Use Guided Notes?

    • Guided Notes can serve as an advance organizer for students.

    • Guided Notes help teachers prioritize and limit lecture content.

    • Guided Notes content can be easily converted into formative and summative assessments.

    Clap Clap

    TEACH!


    Frequently asked questions about guided notes

    Frequently Asked Questions About Guided Notes

    Q: Isn’t providing students with guided notes making it too easy for them? Are we just “spoon-feeding” them the information?

    Q: Why not just pass out an outline of my lecture or a copy of the guided notes already completed?


    Non verbal otr1

    Non-Verbal OTR

    • Response Cards/Response Systems

      • Pre-printed, Write-on, Cover part

    • Movement Activities/Signaling

      • Sit/Stand, Thumbs Up/Down, Other Action, 4 Corners

  • Guided Notes

    • http://rti2.org/rti2/guided_notes

    • http://www.interventioncentral.org/index.php/study-org/221-guided-notes

    • http://montgomeryschoolsmd.org/departments/hiat/tech_quick_guides/Word_Guided_Notes.pdf

  • Computer Assisted Instruction


  • Response card

    ResponseCard

    A response card requires a student to write a brief answer to a question.


    Response card1

    ResponseCard

    • Can be used throughout your entire lesson.

    • Each response is meant to be QUICK!

    • Can be used as a formative assessment.

    • Can invite individual oral response, pair share &/or Table Talk


    Response card2

    ResponseCard

    • Elicit active responses from all students simultaneously;

    • Demonstrate student understanding of the information taught; and

    • Make informed instructional decisions based on students responses.


    Procedures for response cards

    Procedures for Response Cards

    1. Train students in the use of their response cards.

    • “Jot Down Your Answers” – Students write their answers.

    • “Cards Up” – Students raise response cards above their heads, facing teacher.

    • “Cards Down” – Students place response cards face down.

      2. After new material has been introduced

    • write their responses on their cards.

      3. prompt students as a class to hold their response cards above their heads.

      4. Provide praise and/or corrective feedback for student responses.

  • Use Positive Responding – If all answers are correct, provide praise to the class. If some answers are correct, praise the correct response.

    5. Interchange questions that are review with questions that relate to new material.


  • Examples

    Examples

    • “Yes/True” on one side and “No/False” on the other

    • A, B, C, D cards for multiple choice questions

    • Cards with subject-specific terms (parts of speech, scientific classifications, historical periods, formulas, etc.)


    Examples www reallygoodstuff com

    Exampleswww.reallygoodstuff.com


    S socrative com

    s.socrative.com

    • Socrativeis a smart student response system that empowers teachers to engage their classrooms through a series of educational exercises and games via smartphones, laptops, and tablets.


    Response c ard

    ResponseCard

    After watching the video…

    Which multiple response strategy would you use to foster student engagement and why?


    Consider this

    Consider this …

    If response cards were used instead of handraising for just 30 minutes per day, each student would make more than 3,700 additional academic responses during the school year.


    Response card3

    Response Card

    Let’s Make and Take


    Opportunities to respond what it is

    Opportunities to RespondWhat it is…

    ALLstudents are doing, answering, speaking, writing, signaling, performing… showing in some way that they have interacted with the instruction.

    Teacher Prompts:

    • Think about…Tell your partner

    • Everyone, say the word

    • Everyone write, then show

    • Tell your partner how many steps there are in…

    • You just heard a lot of information. Think about the three main elements. Tell your partner why these elements are important to…


    For monday

    For Monday…

    • Think about what you have heard today. Is there anything that you can use?

    • What can be (easily) implemented into your own classroom/setting?

    • How will you use/do this?

    • What do you wish would have been included in the presentation or what do you wish there would have been more about?


    Increasing student e ngagement 3 e vidence based i nstructional s trategies

    “In the end, which of these active participation or passage-reading procedures you select is less important than offering a large number of opportunities to respond and keeping ALL students involved. To be truly effective, instruction must be interactive. This constant involvement not only improves learning, but also reduces management problems and makes instruction more enjoyable for both the students and the teacher.” Archer and Hughes (2011) p. 172.


    Whole brain teaching chris biffle

    Whole Brain TeachingChris Biffle

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dfS6aNdG0k4

    <object width="420" height="315"><param name="movie" value="//www.youtube.com/v/dfS6aNdG0k4?version=3&amp;hl=en_US&amp;rel=0"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="//www.youtube.com/v/dfS6aNdG0k4?version=3&amp;hl=en_US&amp;rel=0" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" width="420" height="315" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true"></embed></object>


    Whole brain teaching chris biffle part 2

    Whole Brain TeachingChris BifflePart 2

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dfS6aNdG0k4

    <object width="420" height="315"><param name="movie" value="//www.youtube.com/v/dfS6aNdG0k4?version=3&amp;hl=en_US&amp;rel=0"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="//www.youtube.com/v/dfS6aNdG0k4?version=3&amp;hl=en_US&amp;rel=0" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" width="420" height="315" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true"></embed></object>


    Opportunities to respond

    Opportunities to Respond

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GJrAkrronr8


    References

    References

    Archer, A. & Hughes, C. (2011). Explicit instruction. New York: Guilford Press.

    Blackwell, A.J. & Mclaughlin, T.F. (2005). Using guided notes, choral responding, and response cards to increase student performance. The International Journal of Special Education,

    20, 1-5.

    Conroy, M.A., Sutherland, K.S., Snyder, A.L., & Marsh, S. (2008). Classwide interventions: Effective instruction makes a difference. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40, 24-30.

    Hall, T. (2002). Explicit instruction: Effective classroom practices report. Retrieved from http://aim.cast.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/explicit_instruction

    Haydon, T., Borders, C., Embury, D., & Clarke, L. (2009). Using effective instructional delivery as a classwide management tool. Beyond Behavior, 18, 12-17.


    References1

    References

    Haydon,T., Mancil, G.R., & Van Loan, C. (2009). Using opportunities to respond in a general education classroom: A case study. Education and Treatment of Children, 32, 267-278.Jones, M.(2011). Improving Behavior and Impacting Learning through Opportunities to Respond. Retrieved from: http://www.ilccbd.pbworks.com/.../ILCCBD+11+Improving+Behavior+OTR+for+W

    Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (n.d.) Effective classroom practice: Active engagement of students: Multiple opportunities to respond. Retrieved from http://pbismissouri.org/class.html

    www.explicitinstruction.org

    Scott, Terry (2013). ABC/UBI Probability Equation. Retreived from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xIiZ9H3DIsE


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