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The Grand Tour. The Lure of Italy and Beyond Most images from ArtStor : library.artstor.org/library/welcome.html. “The Tribuna of the Uffizi,” Johann Zoffany (1772-1777). Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino An Augustan castrum ca. 15 BCE.

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The Grand Tour

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The Grand Tour

The Lure of Italy and BeyondMost images from ArtStor: library.artstor.org/library/welcome.html

“The Tribuna of the Uffizi,” Johann Zoffany (1772-1777)


Colonia Julia Augusta FaventiaPaternaBarcinoAn Augustan castrum ca. 15 BCE


“The Arrival of a Young Traveller and his Suite during the Carnival in Rome,” David Allan (c. 1775)


Joseph Addison’s guidebook: “There is certainly no place in the world where a man may travel with greater pleasure and advantage than in Italy” (1705)


The lure of ItalyThe traveller should undertake a trip to Italy …

  • because the acquisition of cultural knowledge added to one’s education. For whom was it intended?

  • at what age and why at that age?

  • but to where specifically?


First stop on the tour: Florence“Medici Venus,” 1st c. BCE, Uffizi Gallery

  • why did so many travellers, such as Lord Byron, find her so compelling?

  • why did travellers make Florence only the first stop on their itinerary? that is, what were the allures of Rome and Naples?


Second stop on the tour: Rome, the Eternal City“The Roman Forum,” Giovanni Paolo Panini (1735)

  • what should the traveller visit while in Rome?

  • how long should the traveller stay in Rome?

  • what should the traveller do during his stay?


Why the Vatican? Michelangelo Simonetti’sRotonda in the MuseoPio-Clementino (designed 1776-80)


Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768)

  • Reflections on the Imitation of the Painting and Sculpture of the Greeks (1755)

  • History of Ancient Art (Geschichte derKunst des Alterthums) (1764)

  • What did these two works, especially the latter, add to the study of classical art?

  • Consider the following two objects   


Inspiration for Winckelmann: why?

“Apollo Belvedere,” Roman copy of a 4th c. BCE original

“Belvedere Antinous,”

c. 130 CE


Inspiration for Winckelmann: why?

“Laocoon,” c. 150 BCE


Third stop on the tour: Naples, Vesuvius, Pompeii

“Mount Vesuvius in Eruption,” J.M.W. Turner (1817)


Sir William Hamilton (1731-1803)

  • diplomat, scientist, archaeologist, antiquarian

  • author of CampiPhlegraei. Observations on the Volcanoes of the Two Sicilies (1776-1779)

  • excavations began at Herculeaneum in 1738 and at Pompeii in 1763

  • author of Antiquitésétrusques, grecques et romaines(1766–67) and Ancient Vases (1791-95)

  • amassed 2 collections of Greek (“Etruscan”) vases, selling one to the British Museum in 1772, the other purchased at auction in 1799

  • Hamilton’s publication followed by Le Antichità di Ercolano ("The Antiquities of Herculaneum") by the AccademiaErcolanese (1757-1792)

“Sir William Hamilton and his First Wife, in his Study (with a View of Vesuvius),” David Allan (1770)


PubliusVirgiliusMaro (70-19 BCE)

“The Tomb of Virgil at Posillipo, near Naples,” Hubert Robert (1784)


Fourth stop on the tour: beyond Naples to Sicily

Unfinished Doric temple, Segesta, 5th c. BCE

“Temple of Segesta,” Thomas Cole(ca. 1842)


Grand Tour Supplement: GreeceJames “Athenian” Stuart and Nicholas Revett, The Antiquities of Athens and Other Monuments of Greece (1762)What controversy did this publication highlight?


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