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Evaluating the water-collecting properties of various substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions. Aurel Lazar Spring Valley High School. Deserts and Desertification. Natural process that creates deserts Expansion of desert biomes Deserts:

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Aurel lazar spring valley high school l.jpg

Evaluating the water-collecting properties of various substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

Aurel Lazar

Spring Valley High School


Deserts and desertification l.jpg
Deserts and Desertification substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • Natural process that creates deserts

  • Expansion of desert biomes

  • Deserts:

    • Receive small amounts of precipitation

    • Typically dry

    • Extreme diurnal temperature variation

  • Desertification only recently identified as worldwide phenomenon caused by the exponential increase in population


What is desertification l.jpg
What is desertification? substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • The sporadic and completely random spread of a desert

  • A land degradation process that involves a continuum of change, from slight to very severe degradation of the plant and soil resource, and is due to man's activities (Dregne, 1986)

  • Mistakenly assumed to be an instant change to a sandy wasteland


Slide4 l.jpg

Image taken by Serge Duchemin substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions


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Image from Public Domain, taken by Mike Chapman substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions


Causes of desertification l.jpg
Causes of Desertification substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • Usually natural, but recently, all major desertification is caused by humans (Dregne, 1986)

  • Global Warming

  • Land abuse after droughts (Watson)

  • Overgrazing

  • Salinization of land after irrigation

  • Cultivation of Marginal Land (Collins)

  • Removal of Vegetative Cover

  • Burning of Rainforests


Effects l.jpg
Effects substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • 12 Million Hectares of land rendered deserts each year (Collins)

  • Degradation of Topsoils

  • Water run-off

  • Severe Floods in starting regions

  • Livestock death

  • Encroaching Sand Dunes

  • Dust Storms


Image l.jpg
Image substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

Image produced by UNESCO


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Vegetable Cover substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • Roots strengthen soil

  • Leaves soften fall of rain, reducing splash erosion

  • Less water run-off

  • Inhibits Salinization

  • Sustains water moisture

  • Necessary tool in countering desertification


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Obtaining Water substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • Most people are unaware of the vast quantity of water available in airborne atmospheric rivers (Nelson, 2003)

  • Fog Fences – Must be on mountains

  • Desalinization Plants – Produce pollution (Alekseev et al., 1998)

  • Zibold Airwell – Large and bulky pile of rocks (Kogan et al., 2003)

  • Dew Collectors (Musseli et al., 2002)


Purpose l.jpg
Purpose substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • To create a low cost system for collecting water that can be used by all farmers to produce water in arid climates


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Wire Condensate substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • Arid deserts have extremely high temperature ranges

    • 50°c in day

    • 0°c at night

  • Radiative Cooling of objects at night

  • Formation of dew (temperature difference must be extreme)

  • Creation of Wire Farms


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Conceptual Wire Farm substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions


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Hypotheses substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • As the specific heat and density of the materials increases, the water yield will also increase

  • Non-metallic objects will work significantly better than metallic ones


Materials l.jpg
Materials substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

Aluminum Wire

Steel Wire

Plastic Wire

Copper Wire

Glass Wiring

Environmental Chamber

Pipettes

Test Tubes

Steel Tubing

Glass Tubing

Plastic Tubing

Rubber Tubing

Droppers

Cork Stoppers

Pliers


Wiring l.jpg
Wiring substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • Wires selected to take advantage of radiative cooling at night, allowing extreme temperature differences to produce condensation

  • Wiring would allow for mass extension, but thin lengths

  • Difficult for extension of brittle objects, such as glass


Wiring methodology l.jpg
Wiring: Methodology substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

Obtainment of Materials and Environmental Chamber

Set-up of wiring

Chamber set to run 3 full days with temperature variances from 40ºC to -5ºC

Test tubes analyzed for water yields


Wiring experimental design diagram l.jpg
Wiring: Experimental Design Diagram substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

IV: Wire Material

Copper

Aluminum

Plastic

Steel

Glass

6 Trials

6 Trials

6 Trials

6 Trials

6 Trials

DV: Water Yield (mL)

C: Humidity

Regulated Temperature

Testing Area

Wire Volume (0.25 cm diameter x 0.5m length)


Wiring results and discussion l.jpg
Wiring: Results and Discussion substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • No water yield collected for any of the groups

  • Condensate formed, but not enough to constitute a drop

  • Thickness of wires excessively small, allowing heating too quickly


Tubing l.jpg
Tubing substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • Due to the malfunctioning of wiring, an attempt to increase the specific heat of the substrates was needed

  • To do this, water was used as coolant in a series of pipes or tubes to keep the substrates cooler for longer periods of time

  • Whenever the outside of the tube began to heat up, the cold water would absorb the heat energy on the outside of the tube


Tubing methodology l.jpg
Tubing: Methodology substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

Filling of tubes with coolant (water)

Sealing of tubes

Chamber set to run

for 24 hours

Water quantified


Tubing experimental design diagram l.jpg
Tubing: Experimental Design Diagram substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

IV: Tubing Material

Rubber

Plastic

Steel

Glass

6 Trials

6 Trials

6 Trials

6 Trials

DV: Water Yield (mL)

C: Humidity

Regulated Temperature

Testing Area

Tube Volume


Tubing results l.jpg
Tubing: Results substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

Water Yields of Various Materials

Rubber

Plastic

Steel

Glass

3.3

1.4

1.3

3.5

2.1

2.1

1.7

3.1

2.4

0.9

0.8

3.4

1.9

1.7

0.9

3.5

2.1

1.2

1.2

2.9

2.6

1.6

0.8

4.0


Tubing results24 l.jpg
Tubing: Results substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions


Tubing anova test l.jpg
Tubing: ANOVA Test substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

SS

df

MS

F

p-value

Critical Value

Between

18.763

3

6.2544

35.7737

3.13E-8

3.098

Within

3.496

20

0.1748

Total

22.259

23

H0: μrubber = μglass = μplastic = μsteel

α = 0.05

F(3, 20) = 35.7737 > 3.098


Tubing tukey test l.jpg
Tubing: Tukey Test substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • μrubber≠ μglass

  • μrubber≠ μsteel

  • μrubber≠ μplastic

  • μglass≠ μplastic

  • μglass≠ μsteel

  • μsteel = μplastic


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Tubing: Correlation Test substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions


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Tubing: Correlation Test substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

Rubber

Plastic

Steel

Glass

N

6

6

6

6

Mean

2.400

1.483

1.117

3.400

StDev

0.506

0.417

0.354

0.379

S. H. (J/g°K)

1.6

1.12

0.438

0.84

H0: There is no correlation

H1: There is a correlation between specific heat and mean water yield

Critical r: 0.878Calculated r: 0.301

Because r < critical, H0 is accepted


Conclusions l.jpg
Conclusions substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • Water can in fact be generated by such systems, albeit in small quantities.

  • Specific heat is not only determinant of water yield, disproving hypothesis

  • Glass and Rubber produced the most water in normalized settings


Realistic applications l.jpg
Realistic Applications substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • Energy inputs from sun to store electricity

  • Holed plastic tube with resistor running inside to generate temperature difference at night

  • Entire wire farms

  • Vibration system

  • Use of Fiberglass


Future research l.jpg
Future Research substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • Heat sink of night sky in actual outdoor application

  • Actual desert environment

  • More optimized materials

  • Energy storing systems

  • Better coolants than water


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Acknowledgements substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • Dr. Tammi Richardson at USC for aiding in the obtainment of an environmental chamber

  • My parents and teachers for their continuous support and encouragement


Literature cited l.jpg
Literature Cited substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

  • Alekseev, V.V. and Berezkin, M.J. (1998). Fresh water from atmospheric vapour for arid regions. Renewable Energy Bulletin, 3, pp. 36–38

  • Collins, J (2001, February 12). Desertification. Retrieved from VWC Enviro Facts Web site: http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/Envfacts/facts/desertification.htm

  • Dregne, H. E. (1986). Desertification of arid lands. In Physics of desertification, ed. F. El-Baz and M. H. A. Hassan. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus, Nijhoff.

  • Kogan, B. et al. (2003). The moisture from the air as water resource in arid region: hopes, doubts and facts. Journal of Arid Environments, 53, pp. 231–240.

  • Muselli et al. (2002). Dew water collector for potable water in Ajaccio (Corsica Island, France). Atmospheric Research, 64, pp. 297–312

  • Nelson, Robert A. (2003). Air wells: Methods for recovery of atmospheric humidity. Retrieved from Rex Research Web site: http://www.rexresearch.com/airwells/airwells.htm

  • Watson, K (1997). Desertification. Retrieved from Deserts: Geology and Resources Web site: http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/deserts/


Aurel lazar spring valley high school35 l.jpg

Evaluating the water-collecting properties of various substrates in a low cost dew condenser for plant growth in simulated arid climate conditions

Aurel Lazar

Spring Valley High School


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