Basics of IT. Learning Objectives. In this, we will discuss : Introduction to Computer Functional Units of a Computer Internal Core Components of a Computer Input Devices, Output Device and Storage Devices Generation of Computers Classification of Computers Classification of Networks
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Basics of IT
In this, we will discuss :
Introduction to Computer & Characteristics of a Computer :-1. Speed2. Accuracy3. Permanent Memory4. No intelligence5. Diligence
1 KILOBYTE (KB)
1 MEGABYTE (MG)
1 GIGABYTE (GB)
1 TERABYTE (TB)
Computer’s Storage Capacity
Functional Units of a Computer:-1.Input.2Storing3.Processing4.Output5Controlling
ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT
Input Unit Functions:-
Accepts data from outside world.
Converts data to computer acceptable form.
Supplies data for further processing.
Output Unit Functions:-
Accepts results in coded form
Converts coded form into human form.
Gives this to outside world.
Storage Unit Functions:-
Stores data and instructions for processing.
Store intermediate results.
Stores final results after processing.
The microprocessor contains the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit for a microcomputer. It is connected to memory and I/O by buses which carry information between the units.
The most basic components your computer needs to work:-
A CPU or Central Processing Unit. Also known as the Processor.
RAM or Random Access Memory.
Computer CPU(Central Processing Unit)
Also known as the Processor.
The CPU is the brain of the computer. All instructions or decisions are done by the CPU.
Also known as, RAM (Random Access Memory).
Transistors & IC’s
The hard disk is where you store your data. All your documents, music files(mp3's), photos, programs and so on.
The picture show a hard disk that has been opened. The hard disk is encased in metal to protect the platters and heads. Again, like most components, there are a lot of different types of disk and sizes.
Popular Input Devices
1.Keyboard2.Mouse3.Light pen4.Audio input units5.Magnetic disks6.Scanner7.Tele terminals8.Joystick9.Digitizer (graphic tablet)10.Magnetic tapes and cassettes11.Floppy and Winchester disks12.Optical mark reader (OMR)13.Magnetic ink character reader (MICR)
Generation of Computers:-
1. First Generation Computers (1945 – 1955) - The main component in use were the vacuum tube. Eg. Eniac
2. Second Generation Computers (1955 – 1965) -
Computers were built using transistors. Eg. IBM 700 SERIES , IBM 1620, IBM 1401.
3. Third Generation Computers (1965 – 1970) - Computers were built using Ics. Eg. IBM 360, IBM 370.
4.Fourth Generation Computers (1970 ONWARDS) - In this generation LSI and VLSI chips are introduced. Eg. DESK-TOP, LAP-TOP.
5. Fifth Generation Computers (1982 ONWARDS) -
Computer are based on artificial intelligence (AI )
Classification of Computers:-
Microcomputers – Its is a microprocessor. The first microcomputer was built around 8-bit microprocessor chips. Includes PC , Desk Top Computers, Laptop. For example: Zilog Z80, MOS 6502, Intel 8080, MC 6809.
Minicomputers – Minicomputers originated in 1960s. Initially these were 8 bit and 12 bit machines but by 1970s almost all minis were transformed into 16 bit machines.eg. MC68000 Series
Mainframes-mainframe computers are generally 32-bit machines. these are suited to big org. to manage high volume application.eg. Cyber Series, Cray Series, Cray X
Direct Access Storage Devices (DASD):-
It is any secondary storage device which has relatively low access time relative to its capacity.
Historically, IBM introduced the term to cover three different device types:
The direct access capability, occasionally and incorrectly called random access (although that term survives when referring to memory or RAM), of those devices stood in contrast to sequential access used in tape drives.
Generation of Languages:-
Low Level Language
High Level Language
Fourth Generation Language
CLASSIFICATION OF SOFTWARE
APPLICATION SOFTWARE - MS-WORD , MS-EXCEL, FOXPRO.
SYSTEM SOFTWARE - OPERATING SYSTEM (OS), COMPILERS, INTERPRETERS.
CLASSIFICATION OF NETWORKS
Main Reading Books:
1. P. K. Sinha and Priti Sinha , “Computer Fundamentals”, BPB Publications, 2007.
2. Alex Leon and Mathews Leon, “Fundamentals of Information Technology”, Leon Techworld, 2007.
3. V. Rajaraman, “Introduction to Information Technology”, PHI, 2006.
1. Alex Leon and Mathews Leon, “Introduction to Computers”, Vikas Publishing House,2007.
2. Norton Peter, “Introduction to computers”, TMH, 4th Ed., 2006.
3. Simon Haykins, “Communication System”, John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
4. B. Basaraj, “Digital Fundamentals”, Vikas Publications, 1999.
5. 6. V. Rajaraman, “Fundamentals of Computers”, PHI, 5th Ed., 2006.
7. David Anfinson and Ken Quamme, “IT Essentials PC Hardware and Software Component on Guide”, Pearson, 3rd Ed., 2008.
8. Malvino and Leach, “Digital Principles and Application”, TMH, 1999.
9. Ramesh S. Gaonkar, "Microprocessor Architecture Programming and Application with 8085”, PHI, 2001.