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Outline. 21.1An Introduction to Carbohydrates 21.2Handedness of Carbohydrates 21.3The D and L Families of Sugars: Drawing Sugar Molecules 21.4Structure of Glucose and Other Monosaccharides 21.5Some Important Monosaccharides 21.6Reactions of Monosaccharides 21.7 Disaccharides

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Outline

Outline

21.1An Introduction to Carbohydrates

21.2Handedness of Carbohydrates

21.3The D and L Families of Sugars: Drawing Sugar Molecules

21.4Structure of Glucose and Other Monosaccharides

21.5Some Important Monosaccharides

21.6Reactions of Monosaccharides

21.7 Disaccharides

21.8 Variations on the Carbohydrate Theme

21.9 Some Important Polysaccharides


Goals

Goals

  • What are the different kinds of carbohydrates?

    Be able to define monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides, and recognize examples.

  • Why are monosaccharides chiral, and how does this influence the numbers and types of their isomers?

    Be able to identify the chiral carbon atoms in monosaccharides, predict the number of isomers for different monosaccharides, and identify pairs of enantiomers.


Goals continued

Goals, Continued

  • What are the structures of monosaccharides, and how are they represented in written formulas?

    Be able to explain relationships among open-chain and cyclic monosaccharide structures, describe the isomers of monosaccharides, and show how they are represented by Fischer projections and cyclic structural formulas.

  • How do monosaccharides react with oxidizing agents and alcohols?

    Be able to identify reducing sugars and the products of their oxidation, recognize acetals of monosaccharides, and describe glycosidic linkages in disaccharides.


Goals continued1

Goals, Continued

  • What are the structures of some important disaccharides?

    Be able to identify the monosaccharides combined in maltose, lactose, and sucrose, and describe the types of linkages between the monosaccharides.

  • What are the functions of some important carbohydrates that contain modified monosaccharide structures?

    Be able to identify the functions of chitin, connective-tissue polysaccharides, heparin, and glycoproteins.

  • What are the functions of some important carbohydrates that contain modified monosaccharide structures?

    Be able to describe the monosaccharides and linkages in these polysaccharides, their uses and fates in metabolism.


21 1 an introduction to carbohydrates

21.1 An Introduction to Carbohydrates

  • Carbohydrates are a large class of naturally occurring polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones.

  • Monosaccharides, or simple sugars, have from three to seven carbon atoms, and one aldehyde or one ketone group.

    • If the sugar has an aldehyde group, it is an aldose.

    • If it has a ketone group, the sugar is classified as a ketose.


21 1 an introduction to carbohydrates1

21.1 An Introduction to Carbohydrates


21 1 an introduction to carbohydrates2

21.1 An Introduction to Carbohydrates

  • Monosaccharides undergo a variety of structural changes and chemical reactions.

  • They form disaccharides and polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates), which are polymers of monosaccharides.

  • Functional groups are involved in reactions with alcohols, lipids, or proteins to form biomolecules.


21 2 handedness of carbohydrates

21.2 Handedness of Carbohydrates

  • Chiral compounds lack a plane of symmetry and exist as a pair of enantiomers in either a “right-handed” D- form or a “left-handed” L- form.


21 2 handedness of carbohydrates1

21.2 Handedness of Carbohydrates


21 2 handedness of carbohydrates2

21.2 Handedness of Carbohydrates

  • Aldotetroses have two chiral carbon atoms and can exist in four isomeric forms.


21 2 handedness of carbohydrates3

21.2 Handedness of Carbohydrates

  • By convention the carbonyl group and the terminal CH2OH are drawn pointing to the right.

  • In general, a compound with n chiral carbon atoms has a maximum of 2n possible stereoisomers and half that many pairs of enantiomers.

  • In some cases, fewer than the maximum predicted number of stereoisomers exist because some of the molecules have symmetry planes that make them identical to their mirror images.


21 3 the d and l families of sugars drawing sugar molecules

21.3 The D and L Families of Sugars: Drawing Sugar Molecules

  • In a Fischer projection, the aldehyde or ketone group is always placed at the top. The result is that —H and —OH groups projecting above the page are on the left and right of the chiral carbons, and groups projecting behind the page are above and below the chiral carbons.


21 3 the d and l families of sugars drawing sugar molecules1

21.3 The D and L Families of Sugars: Drawing Sugar Molecules

  • Monosaccharides are divided into D sugars and L sugars based on their structural relationships to glyceraldehyde.


21 3 the d and l families of sugars drawing sugar molecules2

21.3 The D and L Families of Sugars: Drawing Sugar Molecules

  • In the D form, the —OH group on carbon 2 comes out of the plane of the paper and points to the right; in the L form, the —OH group at carbon 2 comes out of the plane of the paper and points to the left.


21 3 the d and l families of sugars drawing sugar molecules3

21.3 The D and L Families of Sugars: Drawing Sugar Molecules

  • D and L derive from the Latin dextro for “right” and levo for “left.” In Fischer projections, the D form of a monosaccharide has the hydroxyl group on the chiral carbon atom farthest from the carbonyl group pointing toward the right, whereas the L form has the hydroxyl group on this carbon pointing toward the left.


21 3 the d and l families of sugars drawing sugar molecules4

21.3 The D and L Families of Sugars: Drawing Sugar Molecules

Chirality and Drugs

  • The goal of modern drug development is creation of a drug molecule that binds with a specific hormone, enzyme, or cellular receptor.

  • Because most biomolecules are chiral, a chiral drug molecule (single isomer) is likely to meet the need most effectively.

  • The route to a chiral drug molecule begins with chiral reactants and an enzyme, or with chemical synthesis of a pair of enantiomers that are then separated from each other.

  • Enantiomers can have different effects. the active ingredient in the pain killer and anti-inflammatory Aleve, is sold as a single enantiomer. The other enantiomer causes liver damage.


21 4 structure of glucose and other monosaccharides

21.4 Structure of Glucose and Other Monosaccharides

  • Monosaccharides with five or six carbon atoms exist primarily in cyclic forms when in solution.

  • Aldehydes and ketones react reversibly with alcohols to yield hemiacetals.


21 4 structure of glucose and other monosaccharides1

21.4 Structure of Glucose and Other Monosaccharides


21 4 structure of glucose and other monosaccharides2

21.4 Structure of Glucose and Other Monosaccharides

  • D-Glucose can exist as an open-chain hydroxy aldehyde or as a pair of cyclic hemiacetals.

  • The cyclic forms differ only at C1, where the —OH group is either on the opposite side of the six-membered ring from the CH2OH (a) or on the same side (b).

  • The —CH2OH group in D sugars is always above the plane of the ring.

  • Cyclic monosaccharides that differ only in the positions of substituents at carbon 1 are known as anomers, and carbon 1 is said to be an anomeric carbon atom.


21 4 structure of glucose and other monosaccharides3

21.4 Structure of Glucose and Other Monosaccharides

  • Although the structural difference between anomers appears small, it has enormous biological consequences.

  • Crystalline glucose is entirely in the cyclic a form. In water, equilibrium is established among the open-chain form and the two anomers through mutarotation.


21 4 structure of glucose and other monosaccharides4

21.4 Structure of Glucose and Other Monosaccharides

Monosaccharide Structures—Summary

  • Monosaccharides are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones.

  • Monosaccharides have three to seven carbon atoms, and a maximum of 2n possible stereoisomers, where n is the number of chiral carbon atoms.

  • D and L enantiomers differ in the orientation of the —OH group on the chiral carbon atom farthest from the carbonyl. In Fischer projections, D sugars have the —OH on the right and L sugars have the —OH on the left.

  • D-Glucose (and other 6-carbon aldoses) forms cyclic hemiacetals conventionally represented so that —OH groups on chiral carbons on the left in Fischer projections point up and those on the right in Fischer projections point down.

  • In glucose, the hemiacetal carbon (the anomeric carbon) is chiral, and a and b anomers differ in the orientation of the —OH groups on this carbon. The a anomer has the —OH on the opposite side from the —CH2OH and the b anomer has the —OH on the same side as the —CH2OH.


21 5 some important monosaccharides

21.5 Some Important Monosaccharides

  • Monosaccharides can form multiple hydrogen bonds, and are generally high-melting, white, crystalline solids that are soluble in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents.

  • Most monosaccharides and disaccharides are sweet-tasting, digestible, and nontoxic.

  • Except for glyceraldehyde (an aldotriose) and fructose (a ketohexose), the carbohydrates of interest in human biochemistry are all aldohexoses or aldopentoses.

  • Most are in the D family.


21 5 some important monosaccharides1

21.5 Some Important Monosaccharides

Glucose

  • Glucose is the most important simple carbohydrate in human metabolism.

  • It is the final product of complex carbohydrate digestion and provides acetyl groups for entry into the citric acid cycle as acetyl-CoA.

  • Maintenance of an appropriate blood glucose level is essential to human health.


21 5 some important monosaccharides2

21.5 Some Important Monosaccharides

Galactose

  • D-Galactose is widely distributed in plant gums and pectins, and is a component of the disaccharide lactose.

  • Galactose is an aldohexose; it differs from glucose only in the spatial orientation of the —OH group at carbon 4.

  • In the body, galactose is converted to glucose to provide energy and is synthesized from glucose as needed.


21 5 some important monosaccharides3

21.5 Some Important Monosaccharides

Fructose

  • D-Fructose, often called levulose or fruit sugar, occurs in honey and many fruits.

  • It is one of the two monosaccharides combined in the disaccharide sucrose.

  • It is a ketohexose rather than an aldohexose. In solution, fructose forms five-membered rings:


21 5 some important monosaccharides4

21.5 Some Important Monosaccharides

Ribose and 2-Deoxyribose

  • Ribose and its relative 2-deoxyribose are both 5-carbon aldehyde sugars. These two sugars are most important as parts of larger biomolecules.

  • Ribose is a constituent of coenzyme A, ATP, oxidizing and reducing agent coenzymes and cyclic AMP.

  • 2-deoxyribose differs from ribose by the absence of one oxygen atom, that in the —OH group at C2.


21 5 some important monosaccharides5

21.5 Some Important Monosaccharides

CELL-SURFACE CARBOHYDRATES AND BLOOD TYPE

  • Human blood can be classified into four blood group types, called A, B, AB, and O, based on the presence of three different oligosaccharide units, designated A, B, and O.

  • Among the targets of antibodies are cell-surface molecules that not present on the individual’s own cells, thus “foreign blood cells.”

  • Type O cell-surface oligosaccharides are similar in composition to those of types A and B. People with blood types A, B, and AB all lack antibodies to type O cells making individuals with type O blood “universal donors.”

  • People with type AB blood have both A and B molecules on their red cells. Their blood contains no antibodies to A, B, or O, and they can, if necessary, receive blood of all types.


21 6 reactions of monosaccharides

21.6 Reactions of Monosaccharides

Reaction with Oxidizing Agents: Reducing Sugars

  • Aldehydes can be oxidized to carboxylic acids (RCHO → RCOOH).

  • As the open-chain aldehyde is oxidized, its equilibrium with the cyclic form is displaced, so that the open-chain form continues to be produced.

  • Carbohydrates that react with mild oxidizing agents are classified as reducing sugars.


21 6 reactions of monosaccharides1

21.6 Reactions of Monosaccharides

Reaction with Oxidizing Agents: Reducing Sugars

  • In basic solution, ketones can undergo rearrangement and will also act as reducing sugars.

  • Keto–enol tautomerism is an equilibrium that results from a shift in position of a hydrogen atom and a double bond. It is possible whenever there is a hydrogen atom on a carbon adjacent to a carbonyl carbon.


21 6 reactions of monosaccharides2

21.6 Reactions of Monosaccharides

Reaction with Alcohols: Glycoside and Disaccharide Formation

  • Hemiacetals react with alcohols with the loss of water to yield acetals, compounds with two —OR groups bonded to the same carbon.

  • Because glucose and other monosaccharides are cyclic hemiacetals, they also react with alcohols to form acetals, which are called glycosides.


21 6 reactions of monosaccharides3

21.6 Reactions of Monosaccharides

  • In larger molecules monosaccharides are connected to each other by glycosidic bonds.

  • The reverse of this reaction is a hydrolysis.


21 6 reactions of monosaccharides4

21.6 Reactions of Monosaccharides

Formation of Phosphate Esters of Alcohols

  • Phosphate esters of alcohols contain a —PO3–2 group bonded to the oxygen atom of an —OH group.

  • The —OH groups of sugars can add —PO3–2 groups to form phosphate esters in the same manner.

  • Phosphate esters of monosaccharides appear as reactants and products throughout the metabolism of carbohydrates.


21 7 disaccharides

21.7 Disaccharides

Disaccharide Structure

  • The two monosaccharides in a disaccharide are connected by a glycosidic bond. The bond may be a or b as in cyclic monosaccharides.

  • The structures include glycosidic bonds that create a 1,4 link between C1 of one monosaccharide and C4 of the second monosaccharide.


21 7 disaccharides1

21.7 Disaccharides

Maltose

  • Maltose can be prepared by enzyme-catalyzed degradation of starch.

  • Two a-D-glucose molecules are joined in maltose by an a-1,4 link.

  • It is both an acetal (at C1 in the glucose on the left) and a hemiacetal (at C1 in the glucose on the right), making maltose a reducing sugar.


21 7 disaccharides2

21.7 Disaccharides

Lactose

  • Lactose, or milk sugar, is the major carbohydrate in mammalian milk. Human milk, for example, is about 7% lactose.

  • Structurally, lactose is composed of D-galactose and D-glucose. The two monosaccharides are connected by a b-1,4 link. Like maltose, lactose is a reducing sugar because the glucose ring (on the right in the following structure) is a hemiacetal at C1.


21 7 disaccharides3

21.7 Disaccharides

Sucrose

  • Hydrolysis of sucrose yields one molecule of D-glucose and one molecule of D-fructose. The 50:50 mixture of glucose and fructose that results, invert sugar, is sweeter than sucrose.

  • Sucrose has no hemiacetal group because a 1,2 link joins both anomeric carbon atoms (C1 on glucose, C2 on fructose). The absence of a hemiacetal group means that sucrose is not a reducing sugar.


21 7 disaccharides4

21.7 Disaccharides

Carbohydrates and Fiber in the Diet

  • The major monosaccharides in our diets are fructose and glucose from fruits and honey. The major disaccharides are sucrose and lactose.

  • Our diets contain large amounts of the complex carbohydrate starch and the indigestible polysaccharide cellulose.

  • Cellulose and all other indigestible carbohydrates are collectively known as dietary fiber.

  • Consumption of the more easily digested carbohydrates results in rapid elevation of blood glucose levels followed by lower-than-desired levels a few hours later.

  • Carbohydrates that are digested and absorbed more slowly are associated with healthier blood sugar responses.

  • The Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods give percentages based on a recommended 300 g per day of total carbohydrate and 25 g per day of dietary fiber.

  • Pectins and vegetable gums comprise the “soluble” portion of dietary fiber.

  • Hemicellulose and lignin are the major components of “insoluble” fiber.


21 8 variations on the carbohydrate theme

21.8 Variations on the Carbohydrate Theme

  • Variations on carbohydrates often incorporate modified glucose molecules.


21 8 variations on the carbohydrate theme1

21.8 Variations on the Carbohydrate Theme

Chitin

  • The shells of lobsters, beetles, and spiders are made of chitin, the second most abundant polysaccharide in the natural world. (Cellulose is the most abundant.)

  • Chitin is a hard, structural polymer. It is composed of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine rather than glucose but is otherwise identical to cellulose.


21 8 variations on the carbohydrate theme2

21.8 Variations on the Carbohydrate Theme

Connective Tissue and Polysaccharides

  • Connective tissues are composed of protein fibers in a matrix that contains unbranched mucopolysaccharides.

  • The gel-like mixtures of these polysaccharides with water serve as lubricants and shock absorbers.

  • Hyaluronate molecules contain up to 25,000 disaccharide units. It forms the synovial fluid that lubricates joints and is present within the eye.

  • Chondroitin 6-sulfate (also the 4-sulfate) is present in tendons and cartilage, where it is linked to proteins.


21 8 variations on the carbohydrate theme3

21.8 Variations on the Carbohydrate Theme

Heparin

  • Heparin is valuable medically as an anticoagulant (an agent that prevents or retards the clotting of blood).

  • Heparin is composed of a variety of different monosaccharides, many of them containing sulfate groups.


21 8 variations on the carbohydrate theme4

21.8 Variations on the Carbohydrate Theme

Glycoproteins

  • Proteins that contain short carbohydrate chains (oligosaccharide chains) are glycoproteins.

  • The carbohydrate is connected to the protein by a glycosidic bond between an anomeric carbon and a side chain of the protein.

  • The oligosaccharide chains function as receptors or, in one case, antifreeze.


21 9 some important polysaccharides

21.9 Some Important Polysaccharides

  • Polysaccharides are polymers of tens, hundreds, or even many thousands of monosaccharides linked together through glycosidic bonds.


21 9 some important polysaccharides1

21.9 Some Important Polysaccharides

Cellulose

  • Cellulose provides structure in plants.

  • Each molecule consists of several thousand D-glucose units joined in a long, straight chain by b-1,4 links.

  • Because of the tetrahedral bonding at each carbon atom, the carbohydrate rings bent up at one end and down at the other in what is known as the chair conformation.


21 9 some important polysaccharides2

21.9 Some Important Polysaccharides

  • The hydrogen bonds within chains and between chains (shown in red) contribute to the rigidity and toughness of cellulose fibers.

  • Grazing animals, termites, and moths are able to digest cellulose because microorganisms colonizing their digestive tracts produce enzymes that hydrolyze b-glycosidic bonds.

  • Humans neither produce such enzymes nor harbor such organisms, and therefore cannot hydrolyze cellulose.


21 9 some important polysaccharides3

21.9 Some Important Polysaccharides

Starch

  • In starch, individual glucose units are joined by a-1,4 links rather than by the b-1,4 links of cellulose.

  • Starch is fully digestible and is an essential part of the human diet. It is present only in plant material; our major sources are beans, wheat and rice, and potatoes.


21 9 some important polysaccharides4

21.9 Some Important Polysaccharides

Starch

  • Amylose, accounts for about 20% of starch. It is somewhat soluble in hot water and consists of several hundred to a thousand D-glucose units linked in long chains.

  • Amylose tends to coil into helices.


21 9 some important polysaccharides5

21.9 Some Important Polysaccharides

Starch

  • Amylopectin accounts for about 80% of starch. It has up to 100,000 glucose units per molecule and a-1,6 branches approximately every 25 units along its chain. It is not soluble.


21 9 some important polysaccharides6

21.9 Some Important Polysaccharides

Glycogen

  • Glycogen stores energy in animals in the liver and muscles.

  • Structurally, glycogen is similar to amylopectin in being a long polymer of D-glucose with the same type of branch points in its chain.

  • Glycogen has many more branches and contains up to one million glucose units per molecule.


21 9 some important polysaccharides7

21.9 Some Important Polysaccharides

Cell Walls: Rigid Defense Systems

  • Bacteria and higher plants surround theplasma membrane with a rigid cell wall. The rigidity of the wall prevents the cell from bursting due to osmotic pressure, gives shape to the cell, and protects it from pathogens.

  • Plant cell walls are composed of fibrils of cellulose in a polymer matrix of pectins, lignin, and hemicellulose.

  • Bacterial cell walls provide a rigid platform for the attachment of flagella and pilli. They do not contain cellulose. A majority of bacterial cell walls are composed of a polymer of peptidoglycan.

  • Animals have developed natural defenses that can control many bacteria. For example, lysozyme—an enzyme found naturally in tears, saliva, and egg white—hydrolyzes the cell wall of pathogenic bacteria.

  • Penicillin contains a beta-lactam ring that acts as a “suicide inhibitor” of the enzymes that synthesize the peptidoglycan cross-linking peptide chain. Unfortunately, many bacteria have developed enzymes that destroy the ring, granting resistance to penicillin.


Chapter summary

Chapter Summary

  • What are the different kinds of carbohydrates?

  • Monosaccharides are compounds with three to seven carbons, an aldehyde group on carbon 1 (an aldose) or a ketone group on carbon 2 (a ketose), and hydroxyl groups on all other carbons.

  • Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharides.

  • Polysaccharides are polymers composed of up to thousands of monosaccharides.


Chapter summary continued

Chapter Summary, Continued

  • Why are monosaccharides chiral, and how does this influence the numbers and types of their isomers? 

  • Monosaccharides can contain several chiral carbon atoms, each bonded to one —H one —OH and two other carbon atoms in the carbon chain. A monosaccharide with n chiral carbon atoms may have 2n stereoisomers and half that number of pairs of enantiomers. The members of different enantiomeric pairs are diastereomers; they are not mirror images of each other.


Chapter summary continued1

Chapter Summary, Continued

  • What are the structures of monosaccharides, and how are they represented in written formulas?

  • Fischer projection formulas represent the open-chain structures of monosaccharides. They are interpreted as shown below, with the D and L enantiomers in a pair identified by having the —OH group on the chiral carbon farthest from the carbonyl group on the right (the D isomer) or the left (the L isomer).


Chapter summary continued2

Chapter Summary, Continued

  • Continued… 

  • In solution, open-chain monosaccharides with five or six carbons establish equilibria with cyclic forms that are hemiacetals. The hemiacetal carbon (bonded to two O atoms) is referred to as the anomeric carbon, and this carbon is chiral. Two isomers of the cyclic form of a D or L monosaccharide, known as anomers, are possible because the —OH on the anomeric carbon may lie above or below the plane of the ring.


Chapter summary continued3

Chapter Summary, Continued

  • How do monosaccharides react with oxidizing agents and alcohols?

  • Oxidation of a monosaccharide can result in a carboxyl group on the first carbon atom (C1 in the Fischer projection).

  • Ketoses, as well as aldoses, are reducing sugars because the ketose is in equilibrium with an aldose form (via an enediol) that can be oxidized.

  • Reaction of a hemiacetal with an alcohol produces an acetal.

  • For a cyclic monosaccharide, reaction with an alcohol converts the —OH group on the anomeric carbon to an —OR group. The bond to the —OR group, known as a glycosidic bond, is a or b to the ring as was the —OH group.

  • Disaccharides result from glycosidic bond formation between two monosaccharides.


Chapter summary continued4

Chapter Summary, Continued

  • What are the structures of some important disaccharides?

  • In maltose, two D-glucose molecules are joined by an a-glycosidic bond that connects C1 (the anomeric carbon) of one molecule to C4 of the other—an a-1,4 link.

  • In lactose, D-galactose and D-glucose are joined by a b-1,4 link.

  • In sucrose, D-fructose and D-glucose are joined by a glycosidic bond between the two anomeric carbons, a 1,2 link.

  • Unlike maltose and lactose, sucrose is not a reducing sugar because it has no hemiacetal that can establish equilibrium with an aldehyde.


Chapter summary continued5

Chapter Summary, Continued

  • What are the functions of some important carbohydrates that contain modified monosaccharide structures?

  • Chitin is a hard structural polysaccharide found in the shells of lobsters and insects.

  • Joints and intracellular spaces are lubricated by polysaccharides like hyaluronate and chondroitin 6-sulfate, which have ionic functional groups and form gel-like mixtures with water.

  • Heparin, a polysaccharide with many ionized sulfate groups, binds to a clotting factor in the blood and thus, acts as an anticoagulant.

  • Glycoproteins have short carbohydrate chains bonded to proteins; the carbohydrate segments (oligosaccharides) function as receptors at cell surfaces.


Chapter summary continued6

Chapter Summary, Continued

  • What are the structures and functions of cellulose, starch, and glycogen?

  • Cellulose is a straight-chain polymer of b-D-glucose with b-1,4 links; it provides structure in plants. Cellulose is not digestible by humans, but is digestible by animals whose digestive tract contains bacteria that provide enzymes to hydrolyze the b-glycosidic bonds.

  • Starch is a polymer of a-D-glucose connected by a-1,4 links in straight-chain (amylose) and branched-chain (amylopectin) forms. Starch is a storage form of glucose for plants and is digestible by humans. Glycogen is a storage form of glucose for animals, including humans. It is structurally similar to amylopectin, but is more highly branched. Glycogen from meat in the diet is also digestible.


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