Making it to the starting line preventing injuries
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MAKING IT TO THE STARTING LINE: PREVENTING INJURIES. Marcus Haemmerle, MD Orthopedic Surgeon. The Game Plan. Benefits of exercise Common injuries and causes Tips to prevent injury The warm-up Proper stretching technique Importance of hydration Basic treatment of injury.

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Making it to the starting line preventing injuries


Marcus Haemmerle, MD

Orthopedic Surgeon

The game plan
The Game Plan

  • Benefits of exercise

  • Common injuries and causes

  • Tips to prevent injury

  • The warm-up

  • Proper stretching technique

  • Importance of hydration

  • Basic treatment of injury

Benefits of exercise
Benefits of Exercise

  • Increased energy, strength, endurance, balance, and coordination

  • Decreased risk of chronic disease

    • Heart disease

    • Diabetes

    • Osteoporosis

    • Sleep disorders

  • Lower stress

  • Improved self-esteem

  • Weight reduction

Common injuries
Common Injuries

  • Tendonitis

  • Bursitis

  • Sprains

  • Back Strain

  • Muscle Tears

  • Stress Fractures


  • “Inflammation of a tendon”

  • Tendon attaches muscle to bone

  • Very common when starting new activities

  • Caused by overuse or overstrain

  • Results in burning, aching-type pain that is worse after activity

  • Can result in vicious cycle of pain if unresolved


  • Achilles Tendonitis

    • Located behind heel

    • Usually caused by running, jumping, climbing activities

  • Patellar Tendonitis

    • Located below knee cap

    • Also caused by running, jumping, climbing

  • Rotator Cuff Tendonitis

    • Pain felt on side of shoulder radiating to elbow

    • Caused by repetitive overhead/lifting activities


  • Plantar Fasciitis

    • Not true tendonitis

    • Located from heel to ball of foot

    • Sharp pain with weight bearing at base of heel

    • Worst in morning with first step

    • Caused by repetitive impact activities (running)

      • -those with tight calf muscles are more susceptible


  • “inflammation of a bursa”

  • Bursa is a sac containing lubricating fluid located near joints and tendons

  • Can become painful and swollen

  • Similar causes, symptoms, and treatments to tendonitis

Stress fractures
Stress Fractures

  • Result of repetitive low-level trauma

  • Sudden increase in level of training

  • Inadequate periods of rest

  • Most common in feet and lower legs

  • Progressive, localized pain in bone

  • X-rays may be normal at first

  • Treated with rest and sometimes casting and crutches

Causes of injury
Causes of Injury

  • Overuse

  • Lack of flexibility

  • Improper technique

  • Faulty equipment/footwear

Tips to prevent injury
Tips to Prevent Injury

1. Slow and steady…

  • Be cautious

  • Start slowly, then build gradually

  • Low intensity activity early helps train muscles and improve coordination to better perform as intensity increases

Tips to prevent injury1
Tips to Prevent Injury

2. Don’t follow no-pain, no-gain

  • Listen to your body

  • Stop activity if you have pain, difficulty breathing, dizziness, nausea, chest pain

  • Should be able to carry a conversation during work-out

  • Pushing through pain is quick way to develop injuries

Tips to prevent injury2
Tips to Prevent Injury

3. Emphasize low-impact activities

  • Reduced stress on muscles, tendons, and joints

  • Examples

    • Bicycling

    • Elliptical trainer

    • Walking (level ground)

    • Swimming

    • Weight training

Tips to prevent injury3
Tips to Prevent Injury

4. Warm-up, Cool-down

  • Take 5-10 minutes before each workout to gradually warm-up

  • Increases muscle temperature

    • Improves muscle efficiency

    • Improves elasticity

    • Improves transfer of Oxygen to muscle

    • Improves range of motion of joints

  • Mental preparation

  • 5 min cool-down helps remove toxic substances that build up during exercise (lactic acid)

Tips to prevent injury4
Tips to Prevent Injury

5. Make stretching part of regular routine

  • Improves range of motion and decreases strain on muscles and tendons

  • Best done after muscle has been warmed-up

  • Technique

    • Gradual, prolonged (20-30 sec), and pain-free

    • Avoid bouncing

    • Breathe

Tips to prevent injury5
Tips to Prevent Injury

6. Mix it up

  • “cross-training”

  • Do variety of aerobic and resistive weight training activities on alternating days

  • Decreases overuse of the same muscle groups

  • Improves muscle balance

  • Decreases boredom and exercise burn-out

Tips to prevent injury6
Tips to Prevent Injury

7. Hydrate

  • Before, during, and after activity

  • ~1 cup (8 fl oz) before and every 10-15minutes during activity

  • Weigh self before and after activity

    • Drink 2-3 cups of water for every 1 pound lost

  • Water vs. Gatorade

    • Water usually better choice unless exercising for multiple hours

    • Water = zero calories

Tips to prevent injury7
Tips to Prevent Injury

8. Rest and Recover

  • Allows body to repair, rebuild, and strengthen

  • Muscles require ≥48 hours to recover from stress

  • Get adequate sleep

Tips to prevent injury8
Tips to Prevent Injury

9. Be safe

  • Inspect equipment and shoes

  • Know how to use equipment

    • If not, ask

  • Smooth, controlled movements

    • No jerking

Injury treatment
Injury Treatment

  • Minor injuries (RICE)

    • Rest

      -If it hurts, don’t do it

    • Ice

      -20-30 minutes every 1-2 hours

      -protect skin

    • Compression (ACE wrap)

    • Elevate

Injury treatment1
Injury Treatment

  • When to seek medical attention

    • Severe pain, swelling, or deformity

    • Inability to bear weight through limb

    • Symptoms not improving with appropriate treatment (RICE)