Three sections of the cell
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Three Sections of the Cell. Cell = Basic unit of life All cells take in food, rid waste, reproduce 3 main sections 1) Nucleus 2) Cytoplasm 3) Plasma Membrane. Cytoplasm. Jelly-like material inside of the cell Continuously in motion Most organelles float within

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Three Sections of the Cell

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Three sections of the cell

Three Sections of the Cell

  • Cell = Basic unit of life

  • All cells take in food, rid waste, reproduce

  • 3 main sections

    • 1) Nucleus

    • 2) Cytoplasm

    • 3) Plasma Membrane


Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm

  • Jelly-like material inside of the cell

  • Continuously in motion

  • Most organelles float within

  • Job: Allow chemical reactions to take place


Three sections of the cell

Plasma

Membrane

  • Aka: Cell Membrane

  • Job: Allow materials to enter/exit

  • Composition: Lipids & proteins

  • Semi-Permeable: only some materials may enter and exit

    • Through pores and protein channels

  • Many materials enter/exit as a result of diffusion


Three sections of the cell

Nucleus

  • Job: Controls cell activity

    • Where DNA is made & stored

    • DNA holds info to make proteins

  • Surrounded by Nuclear Envelope

  • Inside:

    • 1) Chromatin: long strands of DNA

    • 2) Nucleolus: makes ribosomes


Three sections of the cell

Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Aka: ER

  • Rough ER: Tunnel system that transports ribosomes and proteins

  • Smooth ER: makes fats & breaks down toxins (no ribosomes)


Three sections of the cell

Ribosomes

  • Created by nucleolus

    • Some attached to ER… some free-floating

  • Transported by the rough ER

  • Job: make proteins


Three sections of the cell

Golgi Apparatus

  • Job: Package and transport proteins out of the cell

  • Process Review

    • 1) Genes hold instructions for making proteins

    • 2) Nucleolus makes a ribosome

    • 3) Ribosome makes protein & travels through rough ER

    • 4) Golgi Body packages the protein into a vesicle and exports them


Golgi body in action

Golgi Body in action


Three sections of the cell

Mitochondria

  • Powerhouse: Releases energy to the cell

  • Job: Create ATP (the energy used by cells) in a process called cellular respiration

    • Why more abundant in muscle cells?

  • Endosymbiosis theory: Once free living


Three sections of the cell

Lysosome

  • Contain digestive enzymes

  • Functions:

    • 1) Break down food

    • 2) Kill bacteria

    • 3) Autolysis: Destroy dying cell


Three sections of the cell

Cilia & Flagella

  • Made of protein

  • Used in locomotion

  • Cilia = short hair like extensions (numerous)

  • Flagella = long whip-like extension (very few)


That one magical night

That one magical night!


Three sections of the cell

Vacuole

  • Job: Stores food, water, waste, color pigments

  • Job: add support

  • Swells & shrinks with H2O supply

  • Plant cells: Large central vacuole (as pictured)

  • Animal cells: Scattered smaller vacuoles


Three sections of the cell

Cell Wall

  • Outermost layer of plant, fungi, & bacteria cells

  • Job: Adds support to growing plants

  • Made of tough cellulose

    • Hard to digest

  • Witnessed by Robert Hooke in 1665


Three sections of the cell

Chloroplast

  • Job: Perform photosynthesis (plants)

    CO2 + H20 + sunlight  Sugar + O2

  • Chlorophyll absorbs sunlight & converts it into glucose (sugar)

  • Endosymbiosis: Once free-living


Quick review

Quick Review

  • Different cells have many similar parts

  • Tiny parts are called “organelles”

  • Each organelle has a separate function


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