Week 5 – September 30, 2003
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Week 5 – September 30, 2003. Blackbody radiation: Monochromatic irradiance of radiation emitted by a blackbody at (absolute) temperature T is given by: = When C 2 = 3.74 x 10 -16 Wm 2 C 2 = 1.44 x 10 -2 m o k Blackbody radiation is isotopic Eλ C 1 λ -5 e (-C2/λT) λm =.

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Week 5 – September 30, 2003

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Week 5 september 30 2003

Week 5 – September 30, 2003


Week 5 september 30 2003

Blackbody radiation:

Monochromatic irradiance of radiation emitted by a blackbody at (absolute) temperature T is given by:

=

When C2 = 3.74 x 10-16Wm2

C2 = 1.44 x 10-2 mok

Blackbody radiation is isotopic

Eλ C1 λ-5 e(-C2/λT)

λm =

Weins Displacement Law


Week 5 september 30 2003

The Maximum wavelength of emission of the Sun is 0.475 μm (475 nm)

What is the “color temperature” of the sun?

­­­­­­­­­­

Integrating the Planck blackbody irradiance over all wavelengths

E* =σT4

σ is the Stefan – Boltzman constant

5.67 x 10-8wm-2degree-4


Week 5 september 30 2003

Solar radiation

Let So be solar irradiance incident on Earth (=1380 wm-2)-the solar “constant”, Re is the radius of Earth, is alkedo.

At equilibrium, Incoming = Outgoing

(1- ) So Re2 = E 4 Re2

E = So/4 (1- )

____________

σT4 = ¼ So (1- )=key radiant Eqn for climate

Planetary radiation


Week 5 september 30 2003

Week 5 – October 2, 2003


Week 5 september 30 2003

Euglenophyta

Euglena

Chlorophyta

Bacillariophyta

Odontella

Chlorella

psbM

petA

petD

petL

psaI

rne

rpl19

rpoA

cysA

cysT

ftsW

infA

minD

ndhA-I

ndhK

accD

ccsA

cemA

chlB

chlL

chlN

clpP

Nephroselmis

ftsW

ndhA-I

ndhK

Cryptophyta

Guillardia

cemA

cpeB

ftrB

ilvB

ilvH

infB

minD

pbsA

psaK

rne

tsf

psaM

Rhodophyta

Mesostigma

Porphyra

rpl22

thiG

bas1

Cyanidium

accD

bas1

cpeB

infB

minD

pbsA

psbX

rps20

Secondary endosymbiosis

hisH

minD

ndhJ odpB

rpl33

rps15

rps16

Streptophyta

Glauco-

cystophyta

Cyanophora

chlN

cpcA

cpcB

cpcG

dfr

glnB

gltB

hisH

infC

nblA

accA

accB

accD

apcA

apcB

apcD

apcE

apcF

argB

carA

ntcA

odpA

odpB

petJ

preA

rpl28

trpA

trpG

trxA

Marchantia

rps16

rpl21

cysA, cysT

rpl21, ndhA-K

pgmA

rpl9

rps1

syfB

syh

upp

chlB

chlL

cpeA

dsbD

fabH

fdx

moeB

Pinus

cysA, cysT, rpl21

chlB,L,N, psaM

atpI

cemA

minD

odpB

rne

rpl23

rpl32

Nicotiana

accD

acpP

apcA

apcB

apcD

apcE

apcF atpD

atpG

cpcA

cpcB dnaK

groEL

hisH

petF

petM

preA psaE

psaF

psbV

psbW

psbX

rbcR

rpl1

rpl3

rpl6

rpl11

rpl18

rpl28

rpl34

rpl35

rps5

rps6

rps10

rps13

rps17

rps20

secY

trpG

Oryza

chlI

ftsW

minD

odpB

rne

rpl5

rpl12

rpl19

rps9

tufA

Zea

clpP

ftsW

psbM

rbcLg

Secondary endosymbiosis

glnB

gltB

ilvB

ilvH

infB

infC

moeB

nblA

ntcA

odpA

pbsA

petJ

pgmA

psaD

psaK

psaL

rbcLr

rbcSr

rpl4

rpl9

rpl13

rpl24

rpl27

rpl29

rpl31

rps1

secA

syfB

syh

thiG

trpA

trxA

tsf

upp

cystA

cystT

infA

ndhA-K

rps15

accA

accB

argB

bas1

carA

clpC

cpcG

cpeA

cpeB

dnaB

dfr

dsbD

fabH

fdx

ftrB

ftsH

bioY

crtE

groES

hemA

mntA

mntB

nadA

rbcSg

> 90% of genes lost

Primary endosymbiosis

Ancestral

photosynthetic

prokaryote


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