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Advanced Technologies for the GOES-R Series and Beyond: Medium Earth Orbits (MEO) as a Venue for Polar Wind Measurements and Geo Microwave – No Moving Parts. Fourth GOES Users’ Conference May 2, 2006 Broomfield, Colorado. Gerald Dittberner (NOAA), Ph.D., CCM, FRMetS

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slide1

Advanced Technologies for the GOES-R Series and Beyond: Medium Earth Orbits (MEO) as a Venue for Polar Wind Measurements and Geo Microwave – No Moving Parts

Fourth GOES Users’ Conference

May 2, 2006

Broomfield, Colorado

Gerald Dittberner (NOAA), Ph.D., CCM, FRMetS

Advanced Systems Planning Division

NOAA Satellite and Information Service

Poster 54

meo medium earth orbit for continuous polar winds

MEOMedium Earth OrbitforContinuous Polar Winds

This work was performed by

Andrew J. Gerber, Jr., David M. Tralli, and Francois Rogez,

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The California Institute of Technology

With support from NOAA

the grand vision
The Grand Vision
  • Measure anywhere on the globe, anytime, with any repeat time, and distribute data to anywhere in near real time
slide4

MEO

Orbit

Basics

roadmap to the future transition stages
Roadmap to the Future:Transition Stages

Today

  • Today
    • 3 LEO Polar
    • 5 GEO (2 U.S.)
  • Step 1: MEO Demonstration
    • 3 LEO Polar
    • 1 MEO Polar
    • 5 GEO
  • Step 2: MEO-GEO Constellation
    • 3 LEO Polar satellites
    • 4 MEO Polar Satellites
    • 5 GEO Satellites

Tech Devel &

Polar Winds Demo

Full Polar Winds &

Current GEOs

A MEO-GEO-LEO Constellation Fulfilling NOAA’s Evolving Data Needs

step 2 meo geo constellation concept
Step 2 – MEO-GEO ConstellationConcept

Complete set of 4 MEO in 90 Degree orbit

Continuous Polar Winds

Risk Reduction

Full Global Coverage (4-pi Steradian)

Complements International Geo Ring

Supports GEOSS

  • MEO-GEO Constellation:
    • 3 LEO Polar satellites
    • 4 MEO Polar Satellites
    • 5 GEO Satellites
step 2 meo geo constellation coverage of pole and northern europe
Step 2 – MEO-GEO ConstellationCoverage of Pole and Northern Europe

Any location continuously visible by one or more MEO or GEO satellites

geostar a microwave sounder for geo orbit

GeoSTARA Microwave SounderforGEO Orbit

This was performed by:

Bjorn Lambrigtsen (Lead), Shannon Brown, Steve Dinardo,

Pekka Kangaslahti, Alan Tanner, and William Wilson of

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology;

Jeff Piepmeier, GSFC; and Chris Ruf, U. Michigan

That was partially funded by NOAA

slide10

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

California Institute of Technology

Pasadena, California

GeoSTAR

A Microwave Sounder for GOES-R

geostar system concept
GeoSTAR System Concept
  • Concept
    • Sparse array employed to synthesize large aperture
    • Cross-correlations -> Fourier transform of Tb field
    • Inverse Fourier transform on ground -> Tb field
  • Array
    • Optimal Y-configuration: 3 sticks; N elements
    • Each element is one I/Q receiver, 3 wide (2 cm @ 50 GHz)
    • Example: N = 100  Pixel = 0.09°  50 km at nadir (nominal)
    • One “Y” per band, interleaved
  • Other subsystems
    • A/D converter; Radiometric power measurements
    • Cross-correlator - massively parallel multipliers
    • On-board phase calibration
    • Controller: accumulator -> low D/L bandwidth

Receiver array & Resulting uv samples

Example: AMSU-A ch. 1

measurement requirements
Measurement Requirements
  • Radiometric sensitivity
    • Must be no worse than AMSU (≤ 1 K)
  • Spatial resolution
    • At nadir: ≤ 50 km for T; ≤ 25 km for q
  • Spectral coverage
    • Tropospheric T-sounding: Must use 50-56 GHz
      • Note: Higher frequencies (118 GHz, etc.) cannot

penetrate to the surface everywhere (e.g., tropics)

      • Bottom 2 km (PBL) is the most important/difficult part and must be adequately covered
    • Tropospheric q-sounding: Must use 183 GHz (AMSU-B channels)
      • Note: Higher frequencies (325 or 450 GHz) cannot penetrate even

moderate atmospheres

    • Convective rain: 183 GHz (AMSU-B channels) method proven
    • “Warm rain”: 89 + 150 GHz (Grody) - maybe 50+150
  • Temporal coverage from GEO
    • T-sounding: Every hour @ 50 km resolution or better
    • Q-sounding: Every 30 minutes @ 25 km resolution or better
geostar prototype development
GeoSTAR Prototype Development
  • Objectives
    • Technology risk reduction
    • Develop system to maturity and test performance
    • Evaluate calibration approach
    • Assess measurement accuracy
  • Small, ground-based
    • 24 receiving elements - 8 (9) per Y-arm
    • Operating at 50-55 GHz
    • 4 tropospheric AMSU-A channels: 50.3 - 52.8 - 53.71/53.84 - 54.4 GHz
    • Implemented with miniature MMIC receivers
    • Element spacing as for GEO application (3.5 )
    • FPGA-based correlator
    • All calibration subsystems implemented

Now undergoing testing at JPL!

Performance so far is excellent

solar transit reconstructed tb images
Solar Transit: Reconstructed Tb Images

Sun is

about

4000 K

in this 50-GHz

channel

Times

in

PDT

accommodation studies
Accommodation Studies

Array arms folded for launch Stowed in Delta fairing Deployed on-orbit

Ball Aerospace

the molniya orbit northern points 180 degrees apart
The Molniya Orbit: Northern Points =180 degrees apart

Anchorage*

~150 Deg W

Helsinki

~ 30 E

*Launch to ensure coverage of Alaska and N. Europe

slide18

Spacecraft: 3 equ + 3 pol Planes: 2Inclination: 0 / 90deg

Altitude: 10.4k kmSeparation: 120 deg each orbitElevation Limit: 5 deg

FR 20050311

NGOESS Robustness

24 Hour Average Cover Percent

With only 3 Satellites Operational in Each Orbit Plane

Epoch: 1998/09/10 22:02:52

24hr Average Coverage Percent

notes on resolution
Notes on Resolution
  • The two previous slides show that the distortion of a pixel in the radial direction is a different function of elevation angle than is the distortion in the perpendicular direction.
  • However, at a given ground elevation angle, the pixel aspect ratio (see box to the right), is constant, and not a function of altitude
  • Therefore, the distortion of a pixel as a function of altitude in one direction (e.g. Radial) is proportional to distortion in the other (i.e. Perpendicular)

Pixel Aspect Ratio (PAR)

PAR = Radial/Perpendicular

@ Nadir PAR = 1.00

20 deg El. PAR = 2.92

5 deg El. PAR= 11.5

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