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Chapter 15: Special Senses. Figure 15.23: Location and structure of taste buds on the tongue, p. 581. Taste fibers of cranial nerve. Gustatory hair. Epiglottis. Taste pore. Palatine tonsil. Lingual tonsil. Basal cell. Circumvallate papilla. Foliate papillae. Connective tissue.

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Chapter 15: Special Senses

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Chapter 15 special senses

Chapter 15:

Special Senses


Figure 15 23 location and structure of taste buds on the tongue p 581

Figure 15.23: Location and structure of taste buds on the tongue, p. 581.

Taste fibers

of cranial

nerve

Gustatory

hair

Epiglottis

Taste

pore

Palatine tonsil

Lingual tonsil

Basal cell

Circumvallate papilla

Foliate

papillae

Connective

tissue

Gustatory

receptor

cells

Stratified

squamous

epithelium

of tongue

(c)

Gustatory (taste) cells

Taste

pore

Connective

tissue

Basal

cells

Taste bud

(b)

Fungiform

papillae

(a)

(d)


Figure 15 24 the gustatory pathway p 583

Figure 15.24: The gustatory pathway, p. 583.

Gustatory

cortex

(in insula)

Thalamic

nucleus

(ventral

posterior

medial

nucleus)

Pons

Solitary nucleus

in medulla oblongata

Facial

nerve (VII)

Vagus

(nerve X)

Glosso-

pharyngeal

nerve (IX)


Figure 5 21 olfactory receptors p 579

Figure 5.21: Olfactory receptors, p. 579.

Olfactory

epithelium

Frontal lobe

of cerebrum

Olfactory tract

Mitral cell

Olfactory

tract

Olfactory

bulb

Glomeruli

Nasal

conchae

Cribriform plate

of ethmoid bone

Filaments of

olfactory nerve

Lamina propria

connective tissue

Route of

inhaled air

Olfactory

gland

Axon

Basal cell

Olfactory receptor

cell

Olfactory

epithelium

Supporting cell

Dendrite

Mucus

Olfactory cilia

Route of inhaled

air containing odor

molecules


Figure 5 22 olfactory transduction process p 580

Figure 5.22: Olfactory transduction process, p. 580.

Extracellular fluid

Na+

Odorant

Adenylate cyclase

Ca2+

1

cAMP

2

3

GTP

GTP

4

Receptor

Golf

GTP

GDP

5

cAMP

ATP

Cytoplasm


Chapter 15 special senses

George Wald 1906 – 1997

received the Nobel Prize in 1967 for discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual

processes in the eye


Figure 15 1a the eye and associated accessory structures p 557

Figure 15.1a: The eye and associated accessory structures, p. 557.

Site where

conjunctiva

merges with

cornea

Eyebrow

Eyelid

Eyelashes

Pupil

Palpebral

fissure

Lacrimal

caruncle

Medial

commissure

(canthus)

Lateral

commissure

(canthus)

Sclera

(covered by

conjunctiva)

Iris

Eyelid

(a)


Figure 15 1b the eye and associated accessory structures p 557

Figure 15.1b: The eye and associated accessory structures, p. 557.

Levator palpebrae

superioris muscle

Orbicularis

oculi muscle

Eyebrow

Tarsal plate

Palpebral

conjunctiva

Tarsal

glands

Cornea

Palpebral

fissure

Eyelashes

Bulbar

conjunctiva

Conjunctival

sac

Orbicularis

oculi muscle

(b)


Figure 15 2 the lacrimal apparatus p 558

Figure 15.2: The lacrimal apparatus, p. 558.

Lacrimal

gland

Lacrimal sac

Excretory ducts

of lacrimal gland

Lacrimal punctum

Lacrimal canaliculus

Nasolacrimal duct

Inferior meatus

of nasal cavity

Nostril


Figure 15 3 extrinsic eye muscles p 559

Figure 15.3: Extrinsic eye muscles, p. 559.

Trochlea

Superior oblique muscle

Superior oblique tendon

Superior rectus muscle

Axis at

center

of eye

Lateral rectus muscle

Inferior

rectus muscle

Conjunctiva

Medial

rectus muscle

Lateral

rectus muscle

Optic

nerve

Inferior

rectus

muscle

Inferior

oblique

muscle

Annular ring

(a)

(b)

Controlling cranial

nerve

Name

Action

Lateral rectus

Moves eye laterally

VI (abducens)

Medial rectus

Moves eye medially

III (oculomotor)

Superior rectus

Elevates eye and turns it medially

III (oculomotor)

Inferior rectus

Depresses eye and turns it medially

III (oculomotor)

Inferior oblique

Elevates eye and turns it laterally

III (oculomotor)

Superior oblique

Depresses eye and turns it laterally

IV (trochlear)

(c)


Figure 15 4a internal structure of the eye sagittal section p 560

Figure 15.4a: Internal structure of the eye (sagittal section), p. 560.

Ora serrata

Sclera

Ciliary body

Choroid

Ciliary zonule

(suspensory

ligament)

Retina

Macula lutea

Cornea

Fovea centralis

Iris

Pupil

Posterior pole

Anterior

pole

Optic nerve

Anterior

segment

(cavity)

Lens

Scleral venous sinus

(Canal of Schlemm)

Central artery

and vein of the retina

Posterior segment (cavity)

(contains vitreous humor)

Optic disc

(blind spot)

(a)


Figure 15 6b microscopic anatomy of the retina p 562

Figure 15.6b: Microscopic anatomy of the retina, p. 562.

Pigmented

layer of

retina

Neural layer

of retina

Central

artery

and vein

of retina

Optic

disc

Sclera

Optic

nerve

Choroid

(b)


Figure 15 6a microscopic anatomy of the retina p 562

Figure 15.6a: Microscopic anatomy of the retina, p. 562.

Pigmented

layer of retina

Horizontal

cell

Rod

Cone

Bipolar

cells

Amacrine cell

Ganglion

cells

(a)

Pathway

of light


Figure 15 13 focusing for distant and close vision p 567

Figure 15.13: Focusing for distant and close vision, p. 567.

Sympathetic +

Nearly parallel rays

from distant object

Lens

Ciliary zonule

Inverted

image

Ciliary muscle

Ciliary muscle

Lens

(a) Lens is flattened for distant vision

Ciliary zonule

(suspensory ligaments)

Parasympathetic +

Divergent rays

from close object

Inverted

image

(c) Anterior segment viewed from behind

(b) Lens bulges for close vision


Figure 15 15 photoreceptors of the retina p 570

Figure 15.15: Photoreceptors of the retina, p. 570.

Process of

bipolar cell

Light

Light

Light

Synaptic

terminals

Inner

fibers

Rod cell

body

Rod cell

body

Nuclei

Cone cell

body

Mitochondria

Outer

fiber

Retinal

(b)

Opsin

Inner segment

Connecting

cilia

Apical microvillus

Outer segment

Discs being

phagocytized

Discs containing

visual pigments

Pigmented layer

Pigment cell

nucleus

Melanin

granules

Basal lamina

(border with choroid)

(a)


Figure 5 19 visual fields of the eyes and visual pathway to the brain inferior view p 576

Figure 5.19: Visual fields of the eyes and visual pathway to the brain, inferior view, p. 576.

Fixation

point

Right eye

Left eye

Optic nerve

Supra-

chiasmatic

nucleus

Pretectal

nucleus

Optic chiasma

Optic tract

Lateral

geniculate

body

Superior

colliculus

(sectioned)

Uncrossed

(ipsilateral) fiber

Crossed

(contralateral) fiber

Lateral geniculate

body of thalamus

Optic

radiation

Superior colliculus

Corpus callosum

Occipital lobe (visual cortex)

(a)

(b)


Figure 15 25a structure of the ear p 584

Figure 15.25a: Structure of the ear, p. 584.

Internal

(inner) ear

(labryinth)

External

(outer) ear

Middle

ear

Auricle

(pinna)

Helix

External

acoustic

meatus

Lobule

Pharyngotympanic

(auditory) tube

Tympanic membrane

(a)


Figure 15 25b structure of the ear p 584

Figure 15.25b: Structure of the ear, p. 584.

Entrance to mastoid antrum

in the epitympanic recess

Auditory

ossicles

Semicircular

canals

Malleus

(hammer)

Incus

(anvil)

Vestibule

Stapes

(stirrup)

Vestibular

nerve

External

acoustic

meatus

Cochlear

nerve

Cochlea

Tympanic

membrane

Oval window

(deep to stapes)

Pharyngotympanic

(auditory) tube

Internal

jugular vein

Round window

(b)


Figure 5 26 the three auditory ossicles in the right middle ear p 585

Figure 5.26: The three auditory ossicles in the right middle ear, p. 585.

Malleus

Incus

Epitympanic recess

Superior

Anterior

Pharyngotym-

panic tube

Tensor

tympani

muscle

Tympanic

membrane

(medial view)

Stapes

Stapedius

muscle


Figure 5 27 membranous labyrinth of the internal ear p 586

Figure 5.27: Membranous labyrinth of the internal ear, p. 586.

Temporal

bone

Facial nerve

Semicircular ducts in

semicircular canals:

Vestibular nerve

Anterior

Superior vestibular ganglion

Posterior

Inferior vestibular ganglion

Lateral

Cochlear nerve

Cristae ampullares

in the ampullae

Maculae

Spiral organ (of Corti)

Utricle in vestibule

Cochlear duct in cochlea

Saccule in vestibule

Stapes in

oval window

Round window


Figure 5 29 sound source and propagation p 589

Figure 5.29: Sound: source and propagation, p. 589.

Area of

compressed

molecules

Area of

rarefaction

Wavelength

Crest

Air pressure

Trough

(a)

(b)

Time

Amplitude

(c)


Figure 15 31 route of sound waves through the ear p 590

Figure 15.31: Route of sound waves through the ear, p. 590.

External ear

Middle ear

Internal ear

Air

Malleus, incus,

stapes

(ossicles)

External

acoustic

meatus

Fluids in cochlear canals

Oval

window

Tympanic

membrane

Pinna

Lower

Upper and middle

Pressure

Time

Spiral organ

(of Corti)

stimulated

One

vibration

Amplitude

Amplification

in middle ear


Figure 15 35 structure of a macula p 594

Figure 15.35: Structure of a macula, p. 594.

Macula of

saccule

Macula of

utricle

Kinocilium

Otolithic

membrane

Stereocilia

Otoliths

Hair bundle

Hair cells

Supporting

cells

Vestibular

nerve fibers


Figure 15 36 the effect of gravitational pull on a macula receptor cell in the utricle p 595

Figure 15.36: The effect of gravitational pull on a macula receptor cell in the utricle, p. 595.

Otolithic

membrane

Kinocilium

Ster

eocilia

Depolarization

Hyperpolarization

Receptor

potential

(Hairs bent towar

kinocilium)

d

(Hairs bent away

from kinocilium)

Nerve

impulses

generated in

vestibular fiber

Increased

impulse frequency

Decreased

impulse frequency

Excitation

Inhibition


Figure 15 37 location and sturcture of a crista ampullaris p 596

Figure 15.37: Location and sturcture of a crista ampullaris, p. 596.

Flow of

endolymph

Crista

ampullaris

(a)

Fibers of

vestibular nerve

Cupula

(b)

Turning motion

Ampulla of

right ear

Ampulla

of left ear

Cupula

Cupula at rest

Position

of cupula

during turn

Position of cupula

during turn

Fluid motion in

ducts

Horizontal ducts

Increased firing

Decreased firing

(d)

(c)

Afferent fibers of vestibular nerve


Figure 15 38 pathways of the balance and orientation system p 597

Figure 15.38: Pathways of the balance and orientation system, p. 597.

Vestibular

receptors

Visual

receptors

Somatic

receptors

Input

Vestibular

nuclear

complex

Reticular

nuclei

Cerebellum

Central nervous

system processing

Oculomotor control

(cranial nerve nuclei

III, IV, VI)

(eye movements)

Spinal motor control

(cranial nerve nuclei XI

and vestibulospinal tracts)

(neck movements)

Output


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