A survey on sensor networks
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A Survey on Sensor Networks. Lan F.Akyildiz,Weilian Su, Erdal Cayirci ,and Yogesh sankarasubramaniam IEEE Communications Magazine 2002 Speaker:earl. Outline. Introduction Communication architecture Protocol stack Conclusion. Introduction.

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A survey on sensor networks

A Survey on Sensor Networks

Lan F.Akyildiz,Weilian Su, Erdal Cayirci ,and Yogesh sankarasubramaniam

IEEE Communications Magazine 2002

Speaker:earl


Outline

Outline

  • Introduction

  • Communication architecture

  • Protocol stack

  • Conclusion


A survey on sensor networks

Introduction

  • Sensor Networks…low-cost, rapid deployment, self-organizing, and fault tolerance

  • Application areas: heath, military, and home

  • Large number of sensor nodes that are densely deployed

  • Nodes use their processing abilities to locally carry out simple computations and transmit the required and partially processed data


Application areas heath

Application areas - heath


Application areas military

Application areas - military

Compress data to reduce storage and communication bandwidth!


Application areas

Application areas

Inactive Sensor


Application areas1

Application areas


Application areas2

Application areas

Active Sensor


Introduction

Introduction

  • Ad hoc networks are not suitable for the sensor networks because of their unique features and application requirement

    • The sensor network may have a much larger number of nodes

    • Transmission power and radio range

    • Topology changes

    • Mobility rate

    • Power conservation


Communication architecture

Communication Architecture

Internet and

Satellite

Sink

C

D

A

E

B

Task manager

node

Sensor nodes

Sensor field

User


Design factors

Design Factors

  • Fault Tolerance

    • the ability to sustain sensor network functionalities without any interruption due to sensor node failures

  • Scalability

    • the density of sensor nodes can range from few sensor nodes to few hundred sensor nodes in a region

  • Production Costs

    • the cost of sensor node should be much less than US$1 in order for the sensor network to be feasible

  • Environment

    • can work in different environments


Design factors1

Location finding system

Mobilizer

Sensing

Unit

Processing

Unit

Transceiver

Processor

Sensor

ADC

Storage

Power Unit

Power

generator

Design Factors

  • Hardware Constraints


Design factors2

Design Factors

  • Sensor Network Topology

    • Predeployment and deployment phase

    • Post-deployment phase

    • Redeployment of additional nodes phase

  • Transmission Media

    • links between nodes can be formed by radio,infrared, or optical media

  • Power Consumption

    • battery lifetime

    • design of power-aware protocols and algorithms


Protocol stack

Task management plane

Mobility management plane

Application layer

Transport layer

Power management plane

Network layer

Data link layer

Physical layer

Protocol Stack


The data link layer

The Data Link Layer

  • Multiplexing of data streams

  • Data frame detection

  • Medium access and error control

  • Ensures reliable point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections in a communication network


A survey on sensor networks

The Data Link Layer - Medium Access Control

  • Goals

    • share communication resources between sensor nodes fairly and efficiently


A survey on sensor networks

The Data Link Layer -Some of the proposed MAC protocols


A survey on sensor networks

The Data Link Layer

  • Power saving modes of operation

    • Turning the transceiver off during idling may not always be efficient due to energy spent in turning it back on each time

  • Error control

    • Two modes of error control:

      • Forward Error Correction(FEC)

        • decoding complexities

      • Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ)

        • additional retransmission energy cost and overhead


The data link layer research issues

The Data Link Layer-Research issues

  • MAC for mobile sensor networks

  • Determination of lower bounds on the energy required for sensor network self-organization

  • Error control coding schemes

  • Power-saving modes of operation


Network layer

Sink

α

3=2

α

1=1

E (PA=1)

α

4=2

A (PA=2)

α

2=1

D (PA=3)

α

6=2

α

B (PA=2)

5=2

α

7=1

α

8=2

α10=2

F (PA=4)

α

9=2

T

C (PA=2)

Network Layer

Task: energy efficient routes

Route 1: Sink-A-B-T, total PA=4, total α = 3

Route 2: Sink-A-B-C-T, total PA=6, total α = 6

Route 3: Sink-D-T, total PA=3, total α = 4

Route 4: Sink-E-F-T, total PA=5, total α = 6

PA: available power

α:: energy required

  • Approaches:

  • Minimum PA route: route 4

  • Minimum Energy (ME) route: route 1

  • Minimum hop (MH) route: route 3

  • Maximum minimum PA node route: route 3


Data aggregation data fusion

C

B

A

E

D

F

G

Sink

Data Aggregation, data fusion

Network Layer


A survey on sensor networks

Network Layer -Routing techniques

  • Floodingeach node receiving a data or management packet repeats it by broadcasting

    • Deficiencies

      • Implosion

      • Overlap

  • Gossipingsend the incoming packets to a randomly selected neighbor

    • Deficiency: takes a long time to propagate the message to all sensor nodes


Sensor protocols for information via negotiation spin

ADV

REQ

DATA

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

ADV

REQ

DATA

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation (SPIN)

Network Layer


Network layer1

Network Layer

  • Sequential Assignment Routing (SAR)

    • Creates multiple trees where the root of each tree is a one-hop neighbor from the sink

  • Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH)

    • Forms clusters to minimize energy dissipation

  • Directed diffusion

    • Sets up gradients for data to flow from source to sink during interest dissemination


Network layer2

BS

Base station

Sensor node

Cluster head

Cluster

Network Layer

  • LEACH and Directed diffusion

LEACH

Directed diffusion


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Sensor network is a new Research issue


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