a survey on sensor networks
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
A Survey on Sensor Networks

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 26

A Survey on Sensor Networks - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 113 Views
  • Uploaded on

A Survey on Sensor Networks. Lan F.Akyildiz,Weilian Su, Erdal Cayirci ,and Yogesh sankarasubramaniam IEEE Communications Magazine 2002 Speaker:earl. Outline. Introduction Communication architecture Protocol stack Conclusion. Introduction.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' A Survey on Sensor Networks' - conner


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
a survey on sensor networks

A Survey on Sensor Networks

Lan F.Akyildiz,Weilian Su, Erdal Cayirci ,and Yogesh sankarasubramaniam

IEEE Communications Magazine 2002

Speaker:earl

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Communication architecture
  • Protocol stack
  • Conclusion
slide3

Introduction

  • Sensor Networks…low-cost, rapid deployment, self-organizing, and fault tolerance
  • Application areas: heath, military, and home
  • Large number of sensor nodes that are densely deployed
  • Nodes use their processing abilities to locally carry out simple computations and transmit the required and partially processed data
application areas military
Application areas - military

Compress data to reduce storage and communication bandwidth!

application areas
Application areas

Inactive Sensor

application areas2
Application areas

Active Sensor

introduction
Introduction
  • Ad hoc networks are not suitable for the sensor networks because of their unique features and application requirement
    • The sensor network may have a much larger number of nodes
    • Transmission power and radio range
    • Topology changes
    • Mobility rate
    • Power conservation
communication architecture
Communication Architecture

Internet and

Satellite

Sink

C

D

A

E

B

Task manager

node

Sensor nodes

Sensor field

User

design factors
Design Factors
  • Fault Tolerance
    • the ability to sustain sensor network functionalities without any interruption due to sensor node failures
  • Scalability
    • the density of sensor nodes can range from few sensor nodes to few hundred sensor nodes in a region
  • Production Costs
    • the cost of sensor node should be much less than US$1 in order for the sensor network to be feasible
  • Environment
    • can work in different environments
design factors1

Location finding system

Mobilizer

Sensing

Unit

Processing

Unit

Transceiver

Processor

Sensor

ADC

Storage

Power Unit

Power

generator

Design Factors
  • Hardware Constraints
design factors2
Design Factors
  • Sensor Network Topology
    • Predeployment and deployment phase
    • Post-deployment phase
    • Redeployment of additional nodes phase
  • Transmission Media
    • links between nodes can be formed by radio,infrared, or optical media
  • Power Consumption
    • battery lifetime
    • design of power-aware protocols and algorithms
protocol stack

Task management plane

Mobility management plane

Application layer

Transport layer

Power management plane

Network layer

Data link layer

Physical layer

Protocol Stack
the data link layer
The Data Link Layer
  • Multiplexing of data streams
  • Data frame detection
  • Medium access and error control
  • Ensures reliable point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections in a communication network
slide16

The Data Link Layer - Medium Access Control

  • Goals
    • share communication resources between sensor nodes fairly and efficiently
slide18

The Data Link Layer

  • Power saving modes of operation
    • Turning the transceiver off during idling may not always be efficient due to energy spent in turning it back on each time
  • Error control
    • Two modes of error control:
      • Forward Error Correction(FEC)
        • decoding complexities
      • Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ)
        • additional retransmission energy cost and overhead
the data link layer research issues
The Data Link Layer-Research issues
  • MAC for mobile sensor networks
  • Determination of lower bounds on the energy required for sensor network self-organization
  • Error control coding schemes
  • Power-saving modes of operation
network layer

Sink

α

3=2

α

1=1

E (PA=1)

α

4=2

A (PA=2)

α

2=1

D (PA=3)

α

6=2

α

B (PA=2)

5=2

α

7=1

α

8=2

α10=2

F (PA=4)

α

9=2

T

C (PA=2)

Network Layer

Task: energy efficient routes

Route 1: Sink-A-B-T, total PA=4, total α = 3

Route 2: Sink-A-B-C-T, total PA=6, total α = 6

Route 3: Sink-D-T, total PA=3, total α = 4

Route 4: Sink-E-F-T, total PA=5, total α = 6

PA: available power

α:: energy required

  • Approaches:
  • Minimum PA route: route 4
  • Minimum Energy (ME) route: route 1
  • Minimum hop (MH) route: route 3
  • Maximum minimum PA node route: route 3
data aggregation data fusion

C

B

A

E

D

F

G

Sink

Data Aggregation, data fusion

Network Layer

slide22

Network Layer -Routing techniques

  • Floodingeach node receiving a data or management packet repeats it by broadcasting
    • Deficiencies
      • Implosion
      • Overlap
  • Gossipingsend the incoming packets to a randomly selected neighbor
    • Deficiency: takes a long time to propagate the message to all sensor nodes
sensor protocols for information via negotiation spin

ADV

REQ

DATA

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

ADV

REQ

DATA

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation (SPIN)

Network Layer

network layer1
Network Layer
  • Sequential Assignment Routing (SAR)
    • Creates multiple trees where the root of each tree is a one-hop neighbor from the sink
  • Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH)
    • Forms clusters to minimize energy dissipation
  • Directed diffusion
    • Sets up gradients for data to flow from source to sink during interest dissemination
network layer2

BS

Base station

Sensor node

Cluster head

Cluster

Network Layer
  • LEACH and Directed diffusion

LEACH

Directed diffusion

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Sensor network is a new Research issue
ad