A survey on sensor networks
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A Survey on Sensor Networks. Lan F.Akyildiz,Weilian Su, Erdal Cayirci ,and Yogesh sankarasubramaniam IEEE Communications Magazine 2002 Speaker:earl. Outline. Introduction Communication architecture Protocol stack Conclusion. Introduction.

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A Survey on Sensor Networks

Lan F.Akyildiz,Weilian Su, Erdal Cayirci ,and Yogesh sankarasubramaniam

IEEE Communications Magazine 2002

Speaker:earl


Outline

  • Introduction

  • Communication architecture

  • Protocol stack

  • Conclusion


Introduction

  • Sensor Networks…low-cost, rapid deployment, self-organizing, and fault tolerance

  • Application areas: heath, military, and home

  • Large number of sensor nodes that are densely deployed

  • Nodes use their processing abilities to locally carry out simple computations and transmit the required and partially processed data


Application areas - heath


Application areas - military

Compress data to reduce storage and communication bandwidth!


Application areas

Inactive Sensor


Application areas


Application areas

Active Sensor


Introduction

  • Ad hoc networks are not suitable for the sensor networks because of their unique features and application requirement

    • The sensor network may have a much larger number of nodes

    • Transmission power and radio range

    • Topology changes

    • Mobility rate

    • Power conservation


Communication Architecture

Internet and

Satellite

Sink

C

D

A

E

B

Task manager

node

Sensor nodes

Sensor field

User


Design Factors

  • Fault Tolerance

    • the ability to sustain sensor network functionalities without any interruption due to sensor node failures

  • Scalability

    • the density of sensor nodes can range from few sensor nodes to few hundred sensor nodes in a region

  • Production Costs

    • the cost of sensor node should be much less than US$1 in order for the sensor network to be feasible

  • Environment

    • can work in different environments


Location finding system

Mobilizer

Sensing

Unit

Processing

Unit

Transceiver

Processor

Sensor

ADC

Storage

Power Unit

Power

generator

Design Factors

  • Hardware Constraints


Design Factors

  • Sensor Network Topology

    • Predeployment and deployment phase

    • Post-deployment phase

    • Redeployment of additional nodes phase

  • Transmission Media

    • links between nodes can be formed by radio,infrared, or optical media

  • Power Consumption

    • battery lifetime

    • design of power-aware protocols and algorithms


Task management plane

Mobility management plane

Application layer

Transport layer

Power management plane

Network layer

Data link layer

Physical layer

Protocol Stack


The Data Link Layer

  • Multiplexing of data streams

  • Data frame detection

  • Medium access and error control

  • Ensures reliable point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections in a communication network


The Data Link Layer - Medium Access Control

  • Goals

    • share communication resources between sensor nodes fairly and efficiently


The Data Link Layer -Some of the proposed MAC protocols


The Data Link Layer

  • Power saving modes of operation

    • Turning the transceiver off during idling may not always be efficient due to energy spent in turning it back on each time

  • Error control

    • Two modes of error control:

      • Forward Error Correction(FEC)

        • decoding complexities

      • Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ)

        • additional retransmission energy cost and overhead


The Data Link Layer-Research issues

  • MAC for mobile sensor networks

  • Determination of lower bounds on the energy required for sensor network self-organization

  • Error control coding schemes

  • Power-saving modes of operation


Sink

α

3=2

α

1=1

E (PA=1)

α

4=2

A (PA=2)

α

2=1

D (PA=3)

α

6=2

α

B (PA=2)

5=2

α

7=1

α

8=2

α10=2

F (PA=4)

α

9=2

T

C (PA=2)

Network Layer

Task: energy efficient routes

Route 1: Sink-A-B-T, total PA=4, total α = 3

Route 2: Sink-A-B-C-T, total PA=6, total α = 6

Route 3: Sink-D-T, total PA=3, total α = 4

Route 4: Sink-E-F-T, total PA=5, total α = 6

PA: available power

α:: energy required

  • Approaches:

  • Minimum PA route: route 4

  • Minimum Energy (ME) route: route 1

  • Minimum hop (MH) route: route 3

  • Maximum minimum PA node route: route 3


C

B

A

E

D

F

G

Sink

Data Aggregation, data fusion

Network Layer


Network Layer -Routing techniques

  • Floodingeach node receiving a data or management packet repeats it by broadcasting

    • Deficiencies

      • Implosion

      • Overlap

  • Gossipingsend the incoming packets to a randomly selected neighbor

    • Deficiency: takes a long time to propagate the message to all sensor nodes


ADV

REQ

DATA

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

ADV

REQ

DATA

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation (SPIN)

Network Layer


Network Layer

  • Sequential Assignment Routing (SAR)

    • Creates multiple trees where the root of each tree is a one-hop neighbor from the sink

  • Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH)

    • Forms clusters to minimize energy dissipation

  • Directed diffusion

    • Sets up gradients for data to flow from source to sink during interest dissemination


BS

Base station

Sensor node

Cluster head

Cluster

Network Layer

  • LEACH and Directed diffusion

LEACH

Directed diffusion


Conclusion

  • Sensor network is a new Research issue


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