Application techniques
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Application Techniques. Chris Boerboom Extension Weed Scientist University of Wisconsin. Application Goal. 1. Place fungicide as deep into the canopy as possible 2. Protectants require maximum coverage of soybean leaf surface Canopy penetration Small droplets -

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Application techniques

Application Techniques

Chris Boerboom

Extension Weed Scientist

University of Wisconsin


Application goal

Application Goal

  • 1. Place fungicide as deep into the canopy as possible

  • 2. Protectants require maximum coverage of soybean leaf surface

  • Canopy penetration

  • Small droplets -

  • better coverage, but cannot be forced into the canopy

  • Larger droplets -

  • less coverage, but penetrate canopy better


Application goal1

Application Goal

  • Complete spray coverage is important

    • Different than postemergence herbicide applications

    • Changes to nozzles, volume, and pressure


Nozzle types for fungicides

Nozzle types for fungicides

  • PressureRating

  • XR TeeJet (flat fan)> 30 psiExcellent

  • XR TeeJet (flat fan)< 30 psiGood

  • TwinJetExcellent

  • Turbo TeeJet> 30 psiVery good

  • Turbo TeeJet< 30 psiGood

  • Standard flat fanGood

  • Air inductionGood

  • Hollow disc-cone (banding nozzle)Good


Nozzle types

Nozzle types

Excellent spray distribution over a wide range of pressures: 15-60 PSI

Reduces drift at lower pressures, better coverage at higher pressures

  • XR TeeJet flat fan TwinJet

  • Turbo TeeJet

Penetrates crop residue or dense foliage

Smaller droplets for thorough spray converge

Spray pressure: 30-60 PSI

110o flat spray pattern

Larger droplets for less drift

Spray pressure: 15-90 PSI


Nozzle types1

Nozzle types

  • Air inductionHollow disc-cone

Excellent wear life - ideal for abrasive spray materials.

Produce smaller droplets for thorough coverage.

Spray pressure: 40-300 PSI

Larger droplets for less drift - large, air-filled drops through the use of a venturi air-aspirator

Spray pressure: 40-100 PSI


Droplet size

Droplet size

  • Droplet categorySymbolVMD (µm)

  • Very fineVF< 150

  • FineF150-250

  • MediumM250-350

  • CoarseC350-450

  • Very coarseVC450-550

  • Extremely coarseXC> 550

  • 220 µm VMD droplet size recommended for fungicides

  • Droplets < 200 µm are “driftable”


Droplet size1

200 µm

400 µm

=

Droplet size

  • VMD = volume mean diameter

  • = half of spray volume is in droplets larger than this size and half is in droplets smaller


Xr teejet flat fan nozzle

XR TeeJet Flat Fan Nozzle


Boom height

Boom height

  • Balance between canopy penetration and uniformity

  • Lower boom height to:

  • reduce loss of fine droplets

  • increase droplet penetration into canopy

  • (wide angle nozzles (e.g. 110o) allow lower boom height)

  • Need to maintain a minimum boom height for proper overlap between adjacent nozzles

20”

50% overlap

10”


Fungicide application info

Fungicide Application Info

  • Section 3 labelsSpray volume (gpa)

  • Bravo20-150 (complete coverage)

  • Echo 72020-150 (complete coverage)

  • Quadrissufficient volume for coverage

  • Headlinesufficient volume for coverage

  • Section 18 labels

  • Tilt15 (35-40 psi at nozzles)

  • PropiMax15 (35-40 psi at nozzles)

  • Bumper15

  • Folicur10 (complete coverage)

  • Laredo15-20 recommended


Section 18s

Section 18s

  • Section 18 label must be in possession of the applicator during the application

  • List of section 18 labels approved in Wisconsin http://www.datcp.state.wi.us/arm/agriculture/pest-fert/pesticides

  • /special.html

  • Site also contains some of the actual labels

  • Some section 18 labels available at

  • http://www.cdms.net/


Fungicide and herbicide tank mixtures

Fungicide and herbicide tank mixtures

  • Separate applications are generally best.

  • Why?

  • Timing:

  • Weeds: V2-3 soybean stage

  • Rust:R1 stage stage?

  • Drift:

  • Herbicides: medium or coarse droplets

  • Fungicides: very fine or fine droplets

  • Label recommendations for tank mixtures:

  • Not addressed on many labels (safest to avoid)

  • or generic statements not recommending tank mixtures

  • Few labels approve tank mixtures (e.g. Headline)


Drift

Drift

  • Don’t think “drift doesn’t matter with fungicides”

  • In Wisconsin, pesticide drift is:

  • readily visible or could or actually causes harm to persons, property or the environment

  • (Quadris drift to apples is phytotoxic)

  • Drift could

  • cause illegal residues on adjacent crops

  • reduce fungicide performance

  • increase public concerns of pesticide applications


Take home message

Take Home Message

  • Spray volumes that work with glyphosate in Roundup Ready soybeans (10-15 gpa) are too low for the best results for fungicides (15 gpa minimum; 20 gpa better)


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