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Traceability PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Traceability James D. Palmer Presented by: Megan Heffernan Agenda What is traceability? Why is traceability important? How is traceability performed? What tools perform traceability? What is the future of traceability? Introduction What makes a software project successful?

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Traceability l.jpg


James D. Palmer

Presented by: Megan Heffernan

Agenda l.jpg


  • What is traceability?

  • Why is traceability important?

  • How is traceability performed?

  • What tools perform traceability?

  • What is the future of traceability?

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  • What makes a software project successful?

    • Meets stakeholder requirements

  • How can this be encouraged?

    • Traceability

  • Traceability in a nutshell

    • Shows forward and backward relationships linking requirements with design, implementation, test, and maintenance

    • Know reasoning for everything and how to test

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Why is Traceability Important?

  • Ensures that requirements are met

  • Understand relationship between requirements and the delivered system

  • Lowers risk

  • Creates an audit trail

  • Consistency

  • Control

    • Change

    • Development

    • Risk

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Problems with Traceability

  • Manual process

  • Viewed by developers as a low priority

  • Misunderstood

  • No single modeling method

  • Poor documentation

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When Does Traceability Occur?

  • Entire lifecycle!

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How is Tracing Performed?

  • Client gives developers rough requirements

  • Developers create system, hardware, and software requirements

  • Each element is given a unique identifier

    • Element – requirement, design attribute, test, etc

  • Linkages done manually and managed by a CASE tool

  • Traceability tables are made

    • Matrix

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Traceability Example

  • SRD – System Requirements Document

    • High level requirements

    • Done by stakeholders

  • SS – System Specification

    • More detailed requirements

    • Developer interpretation

  • Segments

    • More detailed portions of the SS

    • Includes design information

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Traceability Example

System Requirements Document

System Specification

Interface Control Document

Segment 2

Segment 1

Segment 3

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Traceability Example

Traceability Matrix

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Traceability Management

  • Requirements are added/deleted/modified

  • Impact analysis

  • Trace changed

  • Continues through maintenance

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Traceability in a Perfect World

  • Steps

    • Identification of requirements

    • Architecture selection

    • Classification schema

      • Functions, Performance and Security

      • Translate into views

    • Allocation into schemas

    • Flow-down to design, code, and test

    • Entry into traceability database

    • Linkages

    • Management

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Traceability in the Real World

  • Labor Intensive

  • Classification schemas are frequently changed as requirements are allocated

  • Ensure that semantics and syntax are correct

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Semantics and Syntax

  • Semantics required to assure that a trace is used in context

  • Syntax required to assure that a trace goes to a specific word or phrase

  • Manual verification of outcomes

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Real World Traceability Workflow

  • Receipt of requirements documents

  • Select architecture form to be followed

  • Select classification schema

  • Parse document and assign unique numbers

  • Allocate according to classification scheme

  • Establish linkages across all requirements

  • Generate traceability matrices

  • Maintain traceability linkages in database

  • Maintain traceability links across entire project

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Return on Investment

  • Very difficult to measure

  • Many factors

  • Costs

    • Time

    • CASE Tools

    • Training

  • Benefits

    • ???

    • Only an estimation

  • What rework was avoided?

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  • CASE Tools

  • Characteristics

    • Hypertext linking

    • Unique identifiers

    • Syntactical similarity coefficients

  • Problems

    • Hypertext linking and syntactical similarity does not consider context

    • Unique identifiers do not show requirement information

    • Choosing architecture view and classification schemas will always be manual

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    • Telelogic

    • “capture, link, trace, and manage”

    • For large applications

    • From the datasheet

      • Similar look and feel to explorer

      • Gap analysis for unaddressed requirements

      • Traceability analysis for identifying areas of risk

      • Impact analysis reports

      • Volatility

      • Traceability by drag and drop

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  • Caliber-RM

    • Borland

  • From the datasheet

    • Centralized repository

    • Requirements traceability across the lifecycle

    • Impact analysis

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Future Predictions

  • Automation of allocation into architectures and classification schemas

  • Little additional automation seen in current tools

  • AIRES (Automated Integrated Requirements Engineering System)

    • Center for Software Systems Engineering at George Mason University

    • Relies heavily of semantics and syntax

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  • Pros

    • Clearly reflected traceability importance and need

    • Practical workflow

  • Cons

    • Examples did not reflect lifecycle

    • Little practicality with tools

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Agenda Revisited

  • What is traceability?

  • Why is traceability important?

  • How is traceability performed?

  • What tools perform traceability?

  • What is the future of traceability?

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