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Contents. 2.1 Basic safety principles and requirements during decommissioning of nuclear facilities 2.2IAEA and EU documents/publications on decommissioning

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Contents

Contents

2.1Basic safety principles and requirements during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

2.2IAEA and EU documents/publications on decommissioning

2.3International documents for establishing the main requirements for decommissioning activities

2.3.1RAW management

2.3.2Radiological control

2.3.3Release of materials and sites from regulatory control

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Training objectives

Training objectives

Upon completion of training trainees should be able to:

  • Describe categories of IAEA and EU safety documents and classify documents and publications relevant to decommissioning.

  • Explain the basic principles of nuclear facilities decommissioning.

    3.Explain the basic requirements for regulation of nuclear facilities decommissioning.

    4.Describe the international requirements and relevant documents in the area of RAW and SNF management and transport.

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Training objectives cont

Training objectives (cont.)

Upon completion of training trainees should be able to:

5.Describe the international organizations and institutions in the area of Radiation protection.

6.Describe the international requirements in the area of radiation protection and environment protection.

7.Explain the requirements for release of sites from regulatory control.

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


2 1 basic safety principles and requirements during decommissioning

2.1Basic safety principles and requirements during decommissioning

  • Activities associated with the decommissioning of a nuclear facility shall be considered as part of the original practice and BSS shall be endorsed

  • Limitation and optimization shall applied with due regard to dose constraints

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


2 1 basic safety principles and requirements during decommissioning cont

2.1Basic safety principles and requirements during decommissioning (cont.)

  • Clearance, exemption principles apply

  • Limitation and optimization shall applied with due regard to dose constraints

  • Environmental protection, consistent with those of a practice, shall be maintained during the entire decommissioning process and beyond if a facility is released with radiological constraints

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Basic requirements during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

Basic requirements during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  • To determine responsibilities and distribute functions

  • To provide resources

  • To manage decommissioning

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Contents

CEA

Licensee / Facilities Management and Project Management

Dismantling

Cleaning

  • Global assistance contract

  • Planning, Budget

  • Preparation of contracts

  • Data, records and reports

  • Specification of work packages

Global Contracts

Studies

Equipment procurement

Implementation of work

Contracts

Studies or small work packages

CEA

Fuel and specific materials

Support Contracts for site

Waste management – Transport – Studies for regulatory bodies – Coordination…

An example: « Passage » Project (Grenoble, France) industrial organization

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Basic requirements during decommissioning of nuclear facilities1

Basic requirements during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

Safety requirements related to the management of NPP decommissioning:

  • responsibility for maintaining safety during the decommissioning phases;

  • surveillance and monitoring of compliance with established safety criteria, limits, control, conditions (license)

  • application of adequate quality management procedures.

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Safety shall be ensured by means of

Safety shall be ensured by means of:

Safety assessment

  • Safety impacts of decommissioning activities shall be assessed and managed so as the hazards are mitigated (incl new hazards)

    Quality assurance:

  • Quality management programme shall be conducted to provide necessary confidence

  • Decommissioning tasks shall be controlled through the use of written procedures

    Safety culture shall be fostered and maintained.

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Recommendations and requirements for safety

Recommendations and requirements for safety

  • Ensuring all aspects of safety and minimization of Decommissioning impact upon people and environment.

  • Timely planning and reporting the level of Decommissioning technologies development.

  • Maximal and timely use of accumulated data, knowledge and experience.

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


2 2 iaea and eu documents publications on decommissioning

2.2IAEA and EU documents/publications on decommissioning

International conventions:

·The Convention on early notification of а Nuclear Accident

·The Convention on Assistance in the case of а Nuclear Accident or radiological Emergency

·The Convention on nuclear safety

·The Joint Convention on the safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the safety of Radioactive Wastes.

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Eu documents publications

EU documents/publications

  • The Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (or ЕURАTOM Treaty, signed in Rome on 25 March 1957) is one of the founding treaties of the European Union.

  • The Treaty addresses the issues in the field of nuclear power that were relevant at that time:

    • radiological protection of the work force and the public (Chapter III, Health and safety)

    • the supply of uranium for the developing nuclear power sector (Chapter VI)

    • the safeguarding of this fissile material to prevent it from being used for unauthorized military purposes (Chapter VII)

    • general aspects such as research and dissemination of information.

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Contents

EU documents/publications

ЕU legislation can be passed as

  • Regulations,

  • Directives,

  • Decisions

  • and Recommendations

    that are implemented in different Member States by way of national legislation and regulation.

    European Commission initiatives in the field of decommissioning nuclear instillations are based on the chapter 3 (article 37) of the "ЕURАTOM Treaty" and on the Directive of the Council 96/29/Еurаtom of 13 May 1996 laying down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and general public against the danger arising from ionizing radiation.

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Contents

EU documents

  • EU Council Directive 96/29/Euratom – 1996,Basic Safety Standards (protection of nuclear facility personnel health and health of population from the impact of ionizing radiation)

  • EU Council Directive 90/641, 1990 – for radiation protection of supplying organizations personnel (supplying goods or services to NPP);

  • EU Council Directive 97/11/EC, 1997 amending Directive 85/337/EEC on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment

  • EU Council Directive 96/92/ЕС, 1996 – on the general rules for European electricity trade (lays down the requirements for establishing Decommissioning funds)

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Other relevant u documents

Other relevant ЕU documents:

EC 1999/829/EURATOM Commission Recommendation of 6 December 1999 on the application of Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty.

EC 98/C 133/3 Communication from the Commission 30 April 1998

EUR 18860 -1999: Decommissioning of nuclear installations in the European Union

EC Radiation Protection 89 – 1998: Recommended radiological protection criteria for the recycling of metals from the dismantling of nuclear installations.

EC Radiation Protection 113 – 2000: Recommended radiological protection criteria for the clearance of buildings and building rubble from the dismantling of nuclear installation.

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Other relevant u documents cont

Other relevant ЕU documents (cont.):

EC Radiation Protection 114 – 1999: Definition of clearance levels for the release of radioactively contaminated buildings and building rubble Final Report.

EC Radiation Protection 122 – 2000: Practical use of the concepts of clearance and exemption.

EC 1999/669 Commission Recommendation of 15 September 1999 on a classification system for solid radioactive waste

EC, IAEA, OECD/NEA, A Proposed Standardised List of Items for Costing Purposes in the Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations, OECD/NEA, Paris (1999).

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Contents

Safety Standards Hierarchy

Safety Fundamentals

Safety Requirements

Safety Guides

Safety Reports

IAEA documents/publications

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Contents

IAEA documents/publications

IАЕА Safety Standards Series

  • Safety Fundamentals (blue lettering)

    Principles of Radioactive Waste Management, Safety Fundamentals,1995 (SS 111-F)

  • Safety Requirements (red lettering)

    Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, Including Decommissioning, 2000, No. WS-R-2

  • Safety Guides (green lettering)

    Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors, 1999, No WS-G-2.1

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Iaea safety standards relevant to decommissioning

IAEA Safety Standards relevant to decommissioning:

Published Safety Standards

Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, including Decommissioning (2000), Safety Standards Series, No WS-R-2

Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors (1999), Safety Standards Series No WS-G-2.1

Decommissioning of Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities (1999), Safety Standards Series No. WS-G-2.2

Decommissioning of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities (2001), Safety Standards Series No. WS-G-2.4

Draft Safety Standards

DS332 - Release of Sites from Regulatory Control upon Termination of Practices

DS333 - Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

Planned Safety Standards

DS376 -Safety Assessment for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Iaea documents publications

IAEA documents/publications

  • IAEA Safety Reports Series

  • Technical Reports Series

  • Radiological Assessment Reports Series

  • INSAG Series

  • TECDOC Series

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Iaea publications relevant to decommissioning

IAEA publications, relevant to decommissioning:

Safety Reports Series

  • Safety Considerations in the Transition from Operation to Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities, SRS No 36, 2004

  • Safe Enclosure of Nuclear Facilities During Deferred Dismantling, SRS No 26, 2002

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Iaea publications relevant to decommissioning cont

IAEA publications, relevant to decommissioning (cont.):

Technical Reports Series

  • Transition from Operation to Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations, TRS No 420, 2004

  • Decommissioning of Small Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities, TRS No 414,2003

  • Record Keeping for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities: Guidelines and Experience, TRS No 411, 2002

  • Methods for the Minimization of Radioactive Waste from Decontamination and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities, TRS No 401,2001

  • Organization and Management for Decommissioning of Large Nuclear Facilities, TRS No 399, 2000

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Iaea publications relevant to decommissioning cont1

IAEA publications, relevant to decommissioning (cont.):

IAEA Technical Documents/IAEA-TECDOCs

  • Operational and Decommissioning Experience with Fast Reactors, TECDOC No 1405, 2004

  • Planning, Managing and Organizing the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities: Lessons Learned, TECDOC No 1394,2004

  • Decommissioning Costs of WWER-440 Nuclear Power Plants, TECDOC No 1322, 2002

  • Safe and Effective Nuclear Power Plant Life Cycle Management Towards Decommissioning, TECDOC No 1305, 2002.

  • Decommissioning Techniques for Research Reactors, TECDOC No 1273, 2002.

  • The Decommissioning of WWER Type Nuclear Power Plants, TECDOC No 1133, 2000.

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


2 3 international documents for establishing the main requirements for decommissioning activities

2.3International documents for establishing the main requirements for decommissioning activities

Radioactive waste (RAW) management

Basic requirements

  • To methods and technologies for reprocessing and conditioning

  • To transportation

  • To storage and disposal

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Raw management

RAW management

  • Establishment of efficient national legislative system and the corresponding organization structure.

  • Development of strategy for implementation of national policy.

  • Establishment of a national system for RAW management

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Raw management1

RAW management

The system for radioactive waste management shall ensure technical conditions for RAW reprocessing and legal framework for control of the implementation of requirements established:

  • determine the participants in the process and distribution of functions;

  • determine the criteria for safe implementation of activities;

  • assurance of activities (technological, development, resources).

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Published documents relevant to raw management and ram transport

Published documents relevant to RAW management and RAM Transport

  • IAEA, Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Third Edition, IAEA, Vienna, (2003)

  • IAEA, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (1996 Edition – Revised), Safety Standards Series No. ST-1R, IAEA, Vienna (2003)

  • IAEA, Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material TS-G1.1 (ST-2), Vienna 2002

  • IAEA, Planning and Preparing for Emergency Response to Transport Accidents Involving Radioactive Material, Safety Standards Series No. TS-G-1.2, IAEA, Vienna (2002)

  • IAEA, TECDOC 953, Method for the Development of Emergency Response Preparedness for Nuclear or Radiological Accidents

  • Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, IAEA, INFCIRC/335, 1986, Vienna, Austria

  • Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, IAEA, INFCIRC/336, 1986, Vienna, Austria

  • IAEA, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, INFCIRC/500, IAEA, Vienna 1996

  • NEA/OECD, Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Damage, OECD/NEA, Paris (29 July 1960)

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Published documents relevant to raw management and ram transport1

Published documents relevant to RAW management and RAM Transport

  • NEA/OECD, Nuclear Liability, a Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, 1988, IAEA and OECD, Vienna 1989

  • COP on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste, IAEA, INFCIRC/386, 1990, Vienna, Austria

  • Joint Convention on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste, IAEA, INFCIRC/546, 1997, Vienna, Austria

  • Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, IAEA, INFCIRC/274/Rev.1/Add.7, 2000, Vienna, Austria

  • Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, IAEA Safety Series TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised), 2005

  • Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, 2000, Safety Series No GS-R-1

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Draft iaea safety standards relevant to raw management and ram transport

Draft IAEA Safety Standards relevant to RAW management and RAM transport

  • DS326 - Management Systems for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material

  • DS377 - Radiation Protection Programmes for Transport of Radioactive Material

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Planned iaea safety standards relevant to raw management and ram transport

Planned IAEA Safety Standards relevant to RAW management and RAM transport

  • DS327 - Compliance Assurance for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material Transport of low specific activity material and surface contaminated objects safety guide Transport operations with uranium hexafluoride safety guide

  • DS346 - Advisory Material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Radiological control

Radiological control

International organizations in the area of radiation protection

  • International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)

  • International Atomic Energy Agency ( IAEA)

  • International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements ( ICRU)

  • World Health Organization (WHO)

  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

  • International Labour Organization (ILO)

  • Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA)

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Radiological control1

Radiological control

International commission on radiological protection (ICRP)

  • An organization, independent of governments, unions and other organizations

  • It develops the main philosophy of radiation protection – it is the actual legislator in this area

  • Tasks - development of main principles and recommendations on radiation protection.

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Radiological control2

Radiological control

International organizations within Radiation Protection Area

  • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  • International Commission on Radiation Units and measurements (ICRU)

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Radiological control3

Radiological control

International organizations within Radiation Protection Area

  • World health organization (WHO)

  • Food and Agriculture organization/Food supply and Agriculture organization at the UNO (FAO)

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Radiological control4

Radiological control

International organizations within Radiation Protection Area

  • International labour organization (ILO)

  • Nuclear Energy Agency at the OECD, (NEA/OECD)

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Radiological control5

Radiological control

“Consideration must be given to the radiation protection of both workers and members of the public, not only during the course of decommissioning but also as a result of any subsequent occupancy of the decommissioned site. National radiation protection requirements should be established, with due regard to the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS, SS. 115)”

Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors (1999), Safety Standards Series No WS-G-2.1

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Radiological control6

Radiological control

“The activities associated with the decommissioning of a nuclear facility shall be considered as part of the original practice and the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards (BSS, SS. 115) shall be enforced during all decommissioning activities.

The dose limits for normal exposure of workers and members of the public shall be applied. Radiation protection of any persons who are exposed as a result of decommissioning activities shall be optimized with due regard to dose constraints.”

IAEA DS333 - Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Radiological control7

Radiological control

Radiation Protection principles:

  • justification

  • limitation

  • optimisation

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Radiological control8

Radiological control

The decommissioning radiation protection programme:

·should be clearly set out in the decommissioning plan;

·should ensure that radiation protection is optimized and that doses are kept within appropriate limits

·should specify the requirement for on-site and off-site monitoring during decommissioning;

During decommissioning special situations may need to be considered, which may require the use of specialized equipment and the implementation of certain non-routine procedures.

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Iaea publications relevant to radiation protection

IAEA publications relevant to Radiation Protection

Published Safety Standards:

  • International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (1996), Safety Series No 115

  • Occupational Radiation Protection (1999), SSS No RS-G-1.1

  • Assessment of Occupational Exposure Due to Intakes of Radionuclides (1999), SSS No RS-G-1.2

  • Assessment of Occupational Exposure Due to External Sources of Radiation (1999), SSS No RS-G-1.3

  • Building Competence in Radiation Protection and the Safe Use of Radiation Sources (2001). SSS No RS-G-1.4

  • Radiological Protection for Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation (2002), SSS No RS-G-1.5

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Iaea publications relevant to radiation protection1

IAEA publications relevant to Radiation Protection

Draft Safety Standards

  • DS62 - Environmental and source monitoring for purposes of radiation protection

  • DS114 - Safety of Radiation Generators and Sealed Radioactive Source

  • DS315 - Management Systems for Technical Services in Radiation Safety

  • DS343 - Categorization of Radioactive Sources

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Iaea publications relevant to radiation protection2

IAEA publications relevant to Radiation Protection

Planned Safety Standards

  • DS319 - Management Systems in Radiation Safety for Users Occupational Radiation Protection (to combine and supersede RS-G-1.1, RS-G-1.2 and RS-G-1.3)

  • Protection of the Environment justification of Practices in Relation to Radiation Sources activities Involving Exposure to Radon

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Release of materials and sites from regulatory control

Release of materials and sites from regulatory control

  • Exclusion

  • Exemption

  • Clearance

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Release of materials and sites from regulatory control1

Release of materials and sites from regulatory control

  • With regard to establishment of criteria for release of sites (land) from regulatory control it is recommended to use or refer to the approach to derivation of site release limits as described in the IAEA DS332 - Release of Sites from Regulatory Control upon Termination of Practices.

Project BG/04/B/F/PP-166005, Program "Leonardo da Vinci"


Useful links

Useful links:

  • 1.IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency)

  • http://www.iaea.org/

  • http://www.radwaste.org/

  • http://www.radwaste.org/decom.htm

  • http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NENP/NPES/index.html

  • http://entrac.iaea.org/http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/publications.asp

  • 2.U.S. EPA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  • http://www.epa.gov/radiation/understand/

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