Chapter 31 organization and control of the endocrine system
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Essentials of Pathophysiology. Chapter 31 Organization and Control of the Endocrine System. The endocrine system uses chemical substances called hormones as a means of regulating and integrating body functions. All hormones can cross the cell membrane.

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Chapter 31 Organization and Control of the Endocrine System

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Chapter 31 organization and control of the endocrine system

Essentials of Pathophysiology

Chapter 31Organization and Control of the Endocrine System


Pre lecture quiz true false

  • The endocrine system uses chemical substances called hormones as a means of regulating and integrating body functions.

  • All hormones can cross the cell membrane.

  • The hypothalamus controls the release of pituitary hormones.

  • The pituitary gland has been called the master gland because its hormones control the function of many target glands and cells.

  • Glucagon, insulin, and epinephrine receptors are examples of surface (second messenger) receptors.

Pre lecture quiz true/false

T

F

T

T

F


Pre lecture quiz

  • Hormones exert their action by binding to high-affinity _________________ located either on the surface or inside the target cells.

  • Decreased hormone levels often produce an increase in receptor numbers by means of a process called _________________ ; this increases the sensitivity of the body to existing hormone levels.

  • The ________________ and pituitary form a unit that exerts control over many functions of several endocrine glands as well as a wide range of other physiologic functions.

  • Negative _________________ mechanisms regulate the level of many of the hormones in the body.

  •  Hormone secretions acting locally on cells other than those that produced the hormone is known as a ___________________ action.

Pre lecture quiz

  • Feedback

  • Hypothalamus

  • paracrine

  • Receptors

  • up-regulation


Hormones

  • Hormones make cells react by attaching to receptors on their membranes

  • A cell will only respond if it has receptors for the hormone

    • Up-regulation: the cell makes more hormone receptors

    • Down-regulation: the cell makes fewer hormone receptors

  • Different cells respond differently to the same hormone

Hormones


Hormones cont

Hormones (cont.)

  • Hormones can affect cells nearby or far away

  • Endocrine – distant

  • Paracrine – Nearby

  • Autocrine – Self stimulating


Question

Your patient has low levels of circulating thyroid stimulating hormone. How will the cells of the thyroid gland respond?

  • No response

  • Response will depend upon the levels of TSH.

  • Down-regulation

  • Up-regulation

Question


Answer

  • Up-regulation

    Rationale:When there is diminished hormonal activity, cells have the ability to make more hormone receptors and increase the sensitivity of the existing receptors to the hormone. This is called up-regulation.

Answer


Hormones cont1

Hormones can be made of:

  • Amino acids

    • Epinephrine, dopamine, T3, and T4

  • Proteins (peptide hormones)

    • Insulin, glucagon, trophic hormones

  • Cholesterol (steroid hormones)

    • Cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone

  • Fatty acids

    • Ecosanoids

Hormones (cont.)


Question1

Tell whether the following statement is true or false.

Steroid hormones are all derived from cholesterol.

Question


Answer1

True

Rationale:The adrenal sex hormones, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids all arise from cholesterol and have similar chemical structures even though their functions are slightly different.

Answer


Scenario

A man takes dopamine for paralysis caused by his Parkinson disease.

  • At first, a small dose of dopamine was all he needed

  • His symptoms improved significantly right after taking it, but then he froze up again

  • Now he needs a high dose, and the effects last only a little while

    Question:

  • What has happened to his cells and their receptors?

  • The doctor has decided to try giving him an MAO inhibitor along with his dopamine. Why?

Scenario


After hormones affect body cells

  • They may be destroyed by enzymes at the receptor site

    • Epinephrine, dopamine

  • They may be taken up by cells and destroyed

    • Peptide hormones

  • They may be destroyed in the liver and passed out in the bile

    • Steroid hormones

    • T3 and T4

After Hormones Affect Body Cells


Scenario1

A man with liver failure has developed:

Hypokalemia

Hypotension

Hyperglycemia

Repeated infections

Question:

What hormone imbalances do you suspect? Why?

Scenario


Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus knows the state of the body:

  • Temperature

  • Blood osmolarity

  • Blood nutrients

  • Blood hormone levels

  • Inflammatory mediators in blood

  • Emotions

  • Pain

Hypothalamus


The hypothalamus makes releasing hormones

Releasing hormones are sent to the pituitary via the hypophyseal portal system

The Hypothalamus Makes Releasing Hormones

Hypothalamus

Hypophysealportal system

Anterior pituitary

(Image reproduced from Bowne, P.S. [2004]. CRH release tutorial. Used with author’s permission.)


The pituitary master gland creates trophic hormones

They tell other endocrine organs in the body to grow and secrete their hormones

The Pituitary (Master Gland)Creates Trophic Hormones

Hypothalamus makes releasing hormones

Which are sent to the anterior pituitary

The anterior pituitary releases its stored trophic hormones into the systemic circulation

(Image reproduced from Bowne, P.S. [2004]. CRH release tutorial. Used with author’s permission.)


Question2

Tell whether the following statement is true or false.

The pituitary gland controls the release of thyroid hormone.

Question


Answer2

True

Rationale:The pituitary gland (on a cue from the hypothalamus) tells other organs or glands to produce and secrete or inhibit the appropriate hormones.

Answer


Discussion

A man’s hypothalamus has no hormone receptors.

  • What will happen to his production of:

    • CRHT3 and T4

    • ACTHFSH

    • CortisolLH

    • TestosteroneGnRH

    • TRHTSH

      Question:

  • What signs and symptoms do you expect him to have?

Discussion


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