Detailed scheduling ds egn 5623 enterprise systems optimization professional msem fall 2012
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Detailed Scheduling (DS) EGN 5623 Enterprise Systems Optimization (Professional MSEM) Fall, 2012. Detailed Scheduling (DS) Theories & Concepts EGN 5623 Enterprise Systems Optimization (Professional MSEM) Fall, 2012. DS concepts Finite and infinite loading Scheduling directions

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Detailed scheduling ds egn 5623 enterprise systems optimization professional msem fall 2012

Detailed Scheduling (DS) EGN 5623 Enterprise Systems Optimization(Professional MSEM)Fall, 2012


Topics

Detailed Scheduling (DS)Theories & Concepts EGN 5623 Enterprise Systems Optimization(Professional MSEM)Fall, 2012


Topics

  • DS concepts

    • Finite and infinite loading

    • Scheduling directions

    • Sequencing rules

    • Criteria for evaluation of sequencing rules

    • Controlling changeover costs

    • Minimize total production time

  • DS in SAP APO

Topics


Process focused operations

  • Process-focused factories are often called job shops.

  • A job shop’s work centers are organized around similar types of equipment or operations.

  • Workers and machines are flexible and can be assigned to and reassigned to many different orders.

  • Job shops are complex to schedule.

Process-Focused Operations


Scheduling and shop floor decisions review

Master

Production

Schedule (MPS)

Product Design

and

Process Plans

Material

Requirements

Plan (MRP)

Capacity

Requirements

Plan (CRP)

Order-

Processing or

Routing Plans

Planned

Order Releases

Report

Work Center

Loading and

Overtime Plan

Assignment of

Orders to

Work Centers

Scheduling and Shop-Floor Decisions (Review)

Day-to-Day Scheduling and Shop-Floor Decisions


Pre production planning

  • Design the product in customer order

  • Plan the operations the product must pass through ..... this is the routing plan

  • Work moves between operations on a move ticket

Pre-production Planning


Common shop floor control activities

  • The production control department controls and monitors order progress through the shop.

    • Assigns priority to orders

    • Issues dispatching lists

    • Tracks WIP and keeps systems updated

    • Controls input-output between work centers

    • Measures efficiency, utilization, and productivity of shop

Common Shop Floor Control Activities


Shop floor planning and control

  • Input-Output Control

  • Gantt Chart

  • Finite and Infinite Loading

  • Forward and Backward Scheduling

Shop Floor Planning and Control


Input output control

  • Input-output control identifies problems such as insufficient or excessive capacity or any issues that prevents the order from being completed on time.

  • Input-output control report compares planned and actual input, planned and actual output, and planned and actual WIP in each time period

Input-Output Control


Gantt charts

  • Gantt charts are useful tools to coordinate jobs through shop; graphical summary of job status and loading of operations

Gantt Charts


Gantt charts review

Work Centers

Wed.

Sat.

Mon.

Tue.

Fri.

Thu.

Machining

Fabrication

Assembly

Test

E

F

G

D

E

F

C

H

C

D

E

D

H

C

Gantt Charts (Review)

Scheduled

Progress

Setup, Maint.


Assigning jobs to work centers how many jobs day work center

  • Infinite loading

    • Assigns jobs to work centers without regard to capacity

    • Unless excessive capacity exists, long queues occur

  • Finite loading

    • Uses work center capacity to schedule orders

    • Popular scheduling approach

    • Integral part of CRP

Assigning Jobs to Work Centers:How Many Jobs/Day/Work Center


Assigning jobs to work centers which job gets built first

  • Forward scheduling

    • Jobs are given earliest available time slot in operation

    • excessive WIP usually results

  • Backward scheduling

    • Start with promise date and work backward through operations reviewing lead times to determine when a job has to pass through each operation

    • Less WIP but must have accurate lead times

Assigning Jobs to Work Centers:Which Job Gets Built First?


Order sequencing problems

  • Sequencing Rules

  • Criteria for Evaluating Sequencing Rules

  • Comparison of Sequencing Rules

  • Controlling Changeover Costs

  • Minimizing Total Production Time

Order-Sequencing Problems


Order sequencing problems1

  • We want to determine the sequence in which we will process a group of waiting orders at a work center.

  • Many different sequencing rules can be followed in setting the priorities among orders.

  • There are numerous criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the sequencing rules.

Order-Sequencing Problems


Order sequencing rules review

  • First-Come First-Served (FCFS)

    Next job to process is the one that arrived first among the waiting jobs

  • Shortest Processing Time (SPT)

    Next job to process is the one with the shortest processing time among the waiting jobs

  • Earliest Due Date (EDD)

    Next job to process is the one with the earliest due (promised finished) date among the waiting jobs

Order-Sequencing Rules (Review)


Order sequencing rules review1

  • Least Slack (LS)

    Next job to process is the one with the least [time to due date minus total remaining processing time] among the waiting jobs

  • Critical Ratio (CR)

    Next job to process is the one with the least [time to due date divided by total remaining processing time] among the waiting jobs

  • Least Changeover Cost (LCC)

    Sequence the waiting jobs such that total machine changeover cost is minimized

Order-Sequencing Rules (Review)


Evaluating the effectiveness of sequencing rules review

  • Average flow time - average amount of time jobs spend in shop

  • Average number of jobs in system -

  • Average job lateness - average amount of time job’s completion date exceeds its promised delivery date

  • Changeover cost - total cost of making machine changeovers for group of jobs

Evaluating the Effectivenessof Sequencing Rules (Review)


Experience says review

  • First-come-first-served

    • Performs poorly on most evaluation criteria

    • Does give customers a sense of fair play

  • Shortest processing time

    • Performs well on most evaluation criteria

    • But have to watch out for long-processing-time orders getting continuously pushed back

  • Critical ratio

    • Works well on average job lateness criterion

    • May focus too much on jobs that cannot be completed on time, causing others to be late too.

Experience Says (Review)


Controlling changeover costs review

  • Changeover costs - costs of changing a processing step in a production system over from one job to another

    • Changing machine settings

    • Getting job instructions

    • Changing material

    • Changing tools

  • Usually, jobs should be processed in a sequence that minimizes changeover costs

Controlling Changeover Costs (Review)


Controlling changeover costs review1

  • Job Sequencing Heuristic

    • First, select the lowest changeover cost among all changeovers (this establishes the first two jobs in the sequence)

    • The next job to be selected will have the lowest changeover cost among the remaining jobs that follow the previously selected job

Controlling Changeover Costs (Review)


Minimizing total production time

  • Sequencing n Jobs through Two Work Centers

    • When several jobs must be sequenced through two work centers, we may want to select a sequence that must hold for both work centers

    • Johnson’s rule can be used to find the sequence that minimizes the total production time through both work centers

Minimizing Total Production Time


Ds in sap apo

  • Tasks and activities of detailed scheduling

    • Controlling Detailed Scheduling

    • Dates/Times and Planning Directions

    • Resource Availability

    • Selection of Resources

    • Time Relationships

    • Pegging Relationships

    • Automatic Propagation of Changes

    • Determining the Setup Time for Sequence-Dependent Setup Activities

    • Synchronizing Activities on Multi-resources

    • Block planning

    • Scheduling Log

    • Terminating Scheduling

  • Detailed Scheduling Heuristics

DS in SAP APO


Tasks of detailed scheduling

Detailed scheduling is used to:

 Determine the resources and dates/times for carrying out operations, taking resource and product availability into consideration.

Support the scheduler in scheduling resources when creating an optimal operations sequence.

Tasks of Detailed Scheduling


Activities of detailed scheduling

  • Basic DS Activities:

  • Scheduling

    • dispatching operations to resources at a specific date/time

  • Rescheduling

    • dispatching already scheduled operations to a different date/time or to different resources

  • De-allocating

    • removing scheduled operations from the resource schedule

  • Adjusting

    • a new date/time or new resources are assigned to a de-allocated operation.

  • Fixing

    • the resource and date/time for the operation is fixed.

Activities of Detailed Scheduling


Activities of ds schedule

  • Schedule:

    • For an operation of a newly created order or for a de-allocated operation

    • The resources are determined on which the operation should be processed

    • The date/time is determined when the operation should be processed on the resources

    • With scheduling, the operation is dispatched to the resources. Scheduling an order means scheduling all the operations of the order.

Activities of DS: Schedule


Activities of ds reschedule

  • Reschedule:

  • A new date/time or new resources are specified for a scheduled operation.

  • With rescheduling, the operation remains loaded on resources.

  • After rescheduling, it loads either the previous resources or the new resources.

  • Rescheduling an order means rescheduling all the operations of the order.

Activities of DS: Reschedule


Activities of ds de allocate

  • Remove an operation from the resource schedule.

  • With de-allocation, an operation is given the status de-allocated. The operation no longer loads any resources.

  • De-allocating an order means de-allocating all the operations of the order.

  • An operation in the SAP APO system is

    • either scheduled(with no separate status),

    • or de-allocated (in this case it has the status de-allocated).

Activities of DS: De-allocate


Activities of ds adjust

  • A new date/time or new resource is assigned to a de-allocated operation.

  • In the case of an adjustment, the operation retains the status de-allocated. The operation does not load the resources to which it is assigned. Adjusting does not change any resources schedules.

  • Adjusting is a detailed scheduling activity that is carried out automatically by the system for dependent objects (for example, if relationships or pegging relationships have to be adhered to). You cannot adjust de-allocated operations manually.

Activities of DS: Adjust


Activities of ds fix

  • The resource and date/time for the operation is fixed.

  • Through the fixing process, a scheduled or de-allocated operation is assigned the status fixed.

  • A fixed scheduled operation cannot be rescheduled or de-allocated, and a fixed de-allocated operation cannot be scheduled or adjusted.

Activities of DS: Fix


Topics

Integrated Distribution & Production Planning SAP Implementation EGN 5623 Enterprise Systems Optimization(Professional MSEM)Fall, 2012


Prerequisites of ds

  • The system can trigger detailed scheduling activities automatically. For example, it automatically schedules the order operations when an order is created.

  • Three ways to start detailed scheduling activities:

    • production planning run,

    • detailed scheduling planning board, or

    • resource planning table specifically for selected operations or orders.

Prerequisites of DS


Production planning run

  • The user may execute planning online, or in the background for selected orders:

    • online planning: for small data quantities (for example, for test purposes),

    • background planning: for mass planning.

Production Planning Run


Detailed scheduling planning board

  •  Purpose:

    • Graphical representation of the planning situation

    • Graphically represent different aspects of scheduling in the charts of the detailed scheduling planning board. For example, you can show the situation of operations on resources over time and the development of the resource utilization or pegging relationships between orders over time.

    • Interactive solution of planning problems

    • You can perform interactive scheduling on the detailed scheduling planning board to solve scheduling problems such as sequence or date/time problems on resources. Various scheduling functions and heuristics are available in addition to manual scheduling with Drag&Drop.

Detailed Scheduling Planning Board


Detailed scheduling planning board1

  • Integration

  • The detailed scheduling planning board is integrated in different Production Planning applications.

  • You can call up the detailed scheduling planning board directly:

    • In the area menu for production planning

    • In order processing

    • In the product planning table

  • SAP provides the detailed scheduling planning board with standard settings (for example, for setup or layout). If you want to configure a detailed scheduling planning board for your specific scheduling requirements, you must make the appropriate settings.

Detailed Scheduling Planning Board


Detailed scheduling planning board2

Layout of the Detailed Scheduling Planning Board

When you invoke the detailed scheduling planning board for the first time, the selection area is shown in the left-hand part of the screen. You can control the display of the selection area via Settings -> User Settings and save the setting on a user-specific basis.

The setting you make on the detailed scheduling planning board is independent of the setting in the resource planning table (see Configuring the Resource Planning Table).

The selection area serves to provide an overview of the loaded products and resources and to show and hide objects (see Hiding and Showing Objects).

Detailed Scheduling Planning Board


Sap apo planning board interface

SAP APO Planning Board (Interface)

SAP APO – Production Planning – Interactive Production Planning – Detailed Scheduling – Detailed Scheduling Planning Board/Variable view

(APO/CDPS0)


Sap apo planning board

SAP APO Planning Board

SAP APO – Production Planning – Interactive Production Planning – Detailed Scheduling – Detailed Scheduling Planning Board/Variable view

(APO/CDPS0)


Sap apo planning board legend

SAP APO Planning Board (Legend)

SAP APO – Production Planning – Interactive Production Planning – Detailed Scheduling – Detailed Scheduling Planning Board/Variable view

(APO/CDPS0)


Detailed scheduling heuristics

  • DS Heuristics Features:

    • Strategy settings

    • Depending on the heuristic, you can change the selected strategy settings that the heuristic uses to schedule or reschedule operations. Certain strategy settings are permanently set by SAP and cannot be changed.

    • Planning period

    • The system uses heuristics to reschedule operations that start in the planning period.

Detailed Scheduling Heuristics


Detailed scheduling heuristics1

DS Heuristic Activities

If you want to start a heuristic on the DS planning board, select the desired objects and call up the heuristic by choosing Functions Heuristics. You can change the settings for the heuristics on the DS planning board by choosing SettingsHeuristics.

If you want to use a heuristic in the production planning run, enter the heuristic and the objects for which you want to execute the heuristic in the corresponding processing step in the production planning run.

Detailed Scheduling Heuristics


Homework for ds

  • Change demands for Distribution centers

  • Run network plan with multilevel heuristic

  • Review planning board

  • Define SNP deployment profile

  • Define transport load builder profile (TLB)

  • Assign TLB profile to the transportation lanes

  • Run deployment heuristics

Homework for DS


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