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Systems Engineering Guideline Development Overview. 15 September 2005. The Environment. Acquisition streamlining of the 90’s The Good, the Bad, & the Ugly Nature abhors a vacuum ISO-15288, IEEE-1220, EAI-632

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Systems engineering guideline development overview l.jpg

Systems Engineering GuidelineDevelopment Overview

15 September 2005


The environment l.jpg

The Environment

  • Acquisition streamlining of the 90’s

    • The Good, the Bad, & the Ugly

  • Nature abhors a vacuum

    • ISO-15288, IEEE-1220, EAI-632

  • Maj. Gen. Craig Cooning, the Air Force's Director of Space Acquisition at the Pentagon

    • "We walked away from some of the things that served us very well. When you did away with that, you did away with the common language that engineers spoke. So, what we are trying to do is to reinstate those processes that served us well--not to go overboard--but to do it selectively." (21 October 2004)

    • MIL-STD 499C in draft

Like DoD, NASA tossed out many processes & procedures in the 90’s, only to regret those actions.


Background nasa system engineering issues l.jpg

Background: NASA System Engineering Issues

  • Failure Review Boards have consistently pointed to lack of SE

    • Space Shuttle Columbia Accident

      • “Organizational causes of this accident … cultural traits … detrimental to safety … allowed to develop including: …reliance on past success as a substitute for sound engineering practices …” -CAIB, Executive Summary

    • Mars Climate orbiter (MCO)

      • “…., the root cause was not caught by the processes in place in the MCO project …” -MCO Mission failure Investigation Board

    • Other Recent NASA Projects:

      • CDR was too high level to adequately assess design…too little time to perform an adequate assessment

      • ….Although training was widely available, poor requirements are still common

      • “… likely cause for the failure of the parachute system was a faulty design …switches … improperly installed on a circuit board”

      • “ the mishap occurred mainly because of failures in NASA’s SE process….This issue is recognized within the directorate.. and is known to be the cause of several recent failures”

Keep repeating the same SE problems.


Response establish a common framework for systems engineering l.jpg

Response: Establish a Common Framework for Systems Engineering

  • Consistent approach at all levels

  • Advanced tools and methods to achieve greater efficiency,

    and effectiveness

  • Experienced, well trained engineers in application of concepts, processes, tools, and methods

  • Continuous improvement

    through assessment at the

    personal and organizational

    level

Concepts and Processes

Capability

Knowledge

& Skill of Workforce

Tools &

Methods

Multi-Dimensional problem requires 3-D solution


Response concepts processes l.jpg

Response: Concepts & Processes

  • Develop a NASA Systems Engineering Guideline to:

    • Provide consistency across agency

    • Advance practice in agency

      • Take advantage of lesson’s learned from other organizations

    • Address findings and results from numerous studies and FRB’s/Mishaps

      • CAIB/Diaz

      • NIAT


Key strategies in nasa se policy l.jpg

Key Strategies in NASA SE Policy

  • Recognize differences in types of NASA projects.

  • Define a standard design review approach within a common life cycle definition.

  • Standard SE process that can be applied to any system regardless of scope & scale.


Background approach l.jpg

Background: Approach

  • Develop Requirements for NASA Policy for Engineering of Systems

    • Detailed research into the Failure Review Board Reports, NIAT, etc…

    • Analyzed results of the Pre-Assessment study

      • Primary recommendation NPR required to solve major issues

    • Review SE at other organizations such as LMI, Boeing, RAYCO, N-G, NGA, DoD, SMC, NRO, USAF, USN, INCOSCE, NDIA….

      • Assess Systems Engineering best practices

      • Evaluate Systems Engineering at NASA

      • Integrate the best SE practices for NASA

      • Modeled after 7120.5C, 8700 series and SW NPR

  • Process

    • Conduct four workshops

    • Hold Technical exchanges and conduct Reviews (internal and external)

  • Products

    • NPR Document as well as others as required, …

  • Do it right up-front, the first time…instead of “heroes saving the day”


    Agency policy hierarchy l.jpg

    Agency Policy Hierarchy

    NPD 7120.4

    Program/Project Management

    Program and Project Management

    Processes and Requirements

    NPR 7120.5

    Systems Engineering

    Processes and Requirements

    Agency SE Handbook, SP-6105

    Lessons Learned

    Best Practices

    NPR 71xx.x

    NASA Body of Knowledge

    For SE

    PM/SE Handbook

    MSFC-HDBK-3173

    SE Handbook

    MSFC-HDBK-1912

    Verification Handbook

    MSFC-HDBK-2221

    Center

    Directives

    Center Guide(s)

    For SE

    MPGs, MWIs


    Workshop i l.jpg

    Workshop I

    • WS I Attendees

    • OSD - Mark Schaffer

    • USAF - Col. Mike Holbert

    • NRO- Rob Klotz

    • USAF SMC - Col. Rocky Dewan

    • NSSO- Capt. Marsden

    • USN - Zig Rafalek

    • Raytheon/NDIA- Robert Rossa

    • Lockheed- Paul Robataille

    • Boeing- Dev Banerjee

    • Northrop-Grumman- James van Gaasbeek

    • INCOSE- John Snoderly

    • NASA HQ (OCE) - Rex Geveden

    • NASA ESMD - Ellen Stigberg

    • NASA HQ (OSMA) - Wilson Harkins

    • NASA Stennis - Christine Powell

    • NASA HQ (SMD) - Stan Fishkind

    • NASA Goddard - Jim Andary

    • NASA LaRC - Al Motley

    • NASA MSFC - Herb Shivers

    • NASA JSC - Linda Bromley

    • NASA NESC- Peggy Chun

    • NASA APIO- Steve Cavanaugh

    • USAH Col Mike Holbert

    • Consultants- Jerry Lake/SMi, Jalal Mapar/SAIC

    • 7 Feb OCE approval

    • Workshop I, Feb 22-24: Senior group of Government and Industry experts

      • Captured valuable nuggets

    • DoD and Industry are developing robust SE processes

      • Enforced and supported by leadership

    • NASA has many disconnected pockets

      • Each center has their own way

      • But, similarities and commonalities

  • NASA needs a top-down directed approach

    • An Enterprise (OCE) Architecture

    • Crucial for development of complex systems

  • Converging on a new enterprise process framework and consistent processes across NASA represents significant culture change

    • Change of this magnitude takes time and persistence

  • It is important that PM, software and systems engineering be well integrated

  • A change in culture is required that promotes and works towards using a systems approach by all disciplines -- not just systems engineers!


    Se guideline development summary l.jpg

    Approved

    NPR

    Red Team/

    Pre-Nodiss

    SE Guideline Development Summary

    Workshop 4: Review draft

    SE NPR

    Objectives

    NODIS

    Preparation Briefings

    Draft Outline

    Updated Draft

    Other Products

    Complete

    Sections,

    Interate Models

    =

    Workshop 1: Baseline team, Define Objectives and draft annotated outline

    Homework

    75% Draft

    NPR

    Workshop 3 Partial Draft

    Elements for Rough Draft

    SE Process

    Update

    6105

    App.

    Stds

    Revised

    Outline

    Updated Processes

    & Models

    Run Scenarios

    Develop

    Process &

    Models

    Workshop 2: Meat on the Bones


    Slide11 l.jpg

    NASA Investments & Life Cycles

    Institutional Projects

    Pre-Formulation & Proposal

    Preliminary Design / Analysis

    Build/Construct

    / Fabricate

    Operations & Maintenance

    Disposal

    Flight Systems and Ground Support Projects

    Fab/

    Assmb/

    Test

    (D)

    EarlyProgram/Project Funded BAR / ATD Studies

    Concept

    Studies

    (P-PA)

    Concept

    Devel.

    (A)

    Prelim

    Design.

    (B)

    Final

    Design.

    (C)

    Operations

    (E)

    Disposal

    (F)

    Advanced Technology

    Development (ATD)

    Concept

    Study

    Sys &

    Portfol

    Analy

    TRL

    Mat.

    KPP

    Enhancements

    Basic and Applied

    Research (BAR)

    (BAR)

    Prep.

    Portf.

    Monitor

    Perfrm.

    Comm

    Reslts

    Mont.

    Perf.

    Metrics

    Updt

    Portf.

    Aprv

    Sel

    Props

    Fnd

    US Public/Industry/Academia/Federal Agencies, etc.

    Continuous Review

    Mgmt Approval

    * Note: Timescales are not to scale, and not all interfaces are shown

    A NASA project is not a NASA project.


    Flight ground support system life cycle l.jpg

    Key Milestone Reviews

    Mission Concept Review

    Systems Requirements Review

    Systems Design Review

    Preliminary Design Review

    Critical Design Review

    Test Readiness Review

    Systems Acceptance Review

    Flight Readiness Review

    Operational Readiness Review

    Decommissioning Review

    Flight & Ground Support System Life Cycle

    Implementation

    Formulation

    Pre fA

    Concept

    Studies

    fA

    Concept

    Development

    fB

    Preliminary

    Design

    fC

    Detail

    Design

    fD Fabrication,

    Assembly, Integration, & Test

    fE

    Operations & Sustainment

    fF

    Disposal


    System of interest hierarchy of systems l.jpg

    Program

    System of Interest

    Project

    Project

    System of Interest

    Subsystem

    Subsystem

    System of Interest

    Component

    Component

    System of Interest & Hierarchy of Systems

    The systems engineering process can be applied at

    any level of the systems hierarchy.


    System of interest hierarchy of systems14 l.jpg

    Antenna A

    Antenna B

    Transponder

    Transponder

    RF Switch

    Filters

    Diplexers

    Transponder

    Communications

    Satellite

    System of Interest

    System of Interest

    System of Interest

    System of Interest & Hierarchy of Systems

    Goal: develop a single systems engineering guideline that can be used to develop a transponder, a subsystem, or a satellite.


    The se process engine l.jpg

    The SE Process Engine

    Design Input

    Realization Output

    Technical Management Processes

    Design Processes

    Realization Processes

    Transition

    Transition

    Product Validation

    Product Validation

    Feedback

    Iteration Loops

    Feedback

    Iteration Loops

    Product Verification

    Product Verification

    Design Realization

    Design Realization

    Design Output

    Realization Input

    Design Processes applied to each product down and across product structure

    Realization Processes applied to each product up and across product structure


    Se engine applies recursively l.jpg

    Design

    Realization

    Stakeholder

    Stakeholder

    Product Transition

    Transition

    Transition

    Expectations Definition

    Expectations Definition

    Planning

    Planning

    Planning

    Planning

    Product Validation

    Product Validation

    Product Validation

    Assessment

    Assessment

    Assessment

    Assessment

    Technical

    Technical

    Requirements Definition

    Requirements Definition

    Control

    Control

    Control

    Control

    Product Verification

    Product Verification

    Product Verification

    Decision

    Decision

    Decision

    Decision

    Analysis

    Analysis

    Technical

    Technical

    Analysis

    Analysis

    Design Realization

    Design Realization

    Design Realization

    Solution Definition

    Solution Definition

    Logical Decomposition

    Logical Decomposition

    Physical Solution

    Physical Solution

    SE “Engine” Applies Recursively

    Stakeholder Expectations

    Desired Product

    Layer N Product

    Layer N Product

    Products & Technical Design Solution

    Technical Solution

    Layer N+1, 2, …i Products

    Layer N

    Top Down

    System Design

    Bottom Up

    Product Realization

    System Structure


    Summary l.jpg

    Summary

    • Standard design review approach within a common life cycle definition.

    • Recognizes differences in types of NASA projects.

    • Standard SE “engine” process that can be applied to any system regardless of scope & scale and integrates across hierarchical levels.


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