Transporting molecules
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Transporting Molecules. Diffusion. http://lhs.lps.org/staff/sputnam/Biology/U3Cell/diffusion_1.png. Animatioin from: http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/diffusion-animated.gif. Molecules move from “where there’s A LOT” to “where there’s NOT”.

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Transporting Molecules

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Transporting molecules

Transporting Molecules


Transporting molecules

Diffusion

http://lhs.lps.org/staff/sputnam/Biology/U3Cell/diffusion_1.png


Transporting molecules

Animatioin from: http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/diffusion-animated.gif

Molecules move

from “where there’s A LOT”

to “where there’s NOT”


Diffusion across a space

DIFFUSION across a space

DIFFERENCE

Happens anytime there is a _____________ in concentration in one place compared to another

(________________________)

= Concentration gradient


Diffusion across a space1

DIFFUSION across a space

Higher

  • Molecules move automatically from an area of _______ concentration to an area of ________ concentration

  • EX: _____________________

    _____________________

Lower

Perfume, Koolaid, popcorn,

BBQ, Bad smell in room

http://leighhouse.typepad.com/blog/images/kool_aid.jpg

http://www.swapmeetdave.com/Humor/Farts.htm


Molecules need to move across membranes in cells

Molecules need to move across membranes in cells

Image modiified from: http://www.accessexcellence.org/AB/GG/importProt.html


Transporting molecules

If there is a difference in concentration on two sides of a membrane…Diffusion can happen ACROSS A MEMBRANE too!

…as long as membrane will let molecule through


Selectively permeable

SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE


Transporting molecules

Image modified from: http://www.medaille.edu/vmacer/120_graphic_05oxygen.gif

EXAMPLE:

Oxygen molecules

move automatically

from lungs

into blood

DIFFUSION moves them from HIGHER (lungs) concentration to LOWER concentration (blood)


What if cell needs to move large or polar molecules

What if cell needs to move large or polar molecules?

EX:

Glucose

Amino acids


What if cell needs to move a molecule against the concentration gradient

What if cell needs to move a molecule AGAINST the CONCENTRATION GRADIENT?

Example :

(LOW HIGH)

Glucose into mitochondria

Image from: http://www.biologyclass.net/mitochondria.jpg


What if cell needs to move molecules really fast can t wait for it to diffuse

What if cell needs to move molecules really FAST? (can’t wait for it to diffuse)

Example in cells:

Movement of Na + & K+

ions sends nerve signals

http://www.steve.gb.com/images/science/neuron.png


Ways molecules move across membranes

WAYS MOLECULES MOVE ACROSS MEMBRANES

  • PASSIVE TRANSPORT

    Does NOT require energy

  • ACTIVE TRANSPORT

Requires energy


Transporting molecules

Kidspiration by: Riedell


Kinds of passive transport

Kinds of Passive Transport

__________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

  • Diffusion

  • Osmosis

  • Facilitated Diffusion

  • Ion Channels


Diffusion across a membrane

DIFFUSION across a membrane

  • Moves from:

    HIGHER concentration LOWER

Any kind of molecule that

can pass through the

membrane can do this.

EX: ______________

______________

OXYGEN

CARBON DIOXIDE

http://www.lionden.com/cell_animations.htm


Osmosis

OSMOSIS

  • MOVES WATER

    MOLECULES

  • Across a SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE

  • Moves from HIGHER  LOWER

http://www.Isbu.ac.uk/water/molecule.html


What if there is a difference in concentration but solute molecules can t move across a membrane

What if there is a difference in concentration but solute molecules can’t move across a membrane?

WATER will move

until concentration

reaches equilibrium


Transporting molecules

Osmosis1

http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb6/labs/a_osmosis.gif


Osmosis1

OSMOSIS

Osmosis4

HYPERTONIC: Concentration outside cell is ____________________ inside cell

More water leaves cell than enters so cell ____________

GREATER THAN

shrinks


Osmosis2

OSMOSIS

Osmosis3

HYPOTONIC:Concentration outside cell is ________________ inside the cellMore water enters than leaves cell so cellwill ___________________

LESS THAN

Swell bigger


Osmosis3

OSMOSIS

ISOTONIC:

Concentration outside cell ____________

concentration inside cell

Water entering = water leavingso cell _____________________

EQUALS

STAYS THE SAME SIZE


Animal cells

Animal cells

= crenation

= cytolysis

http://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/bloodcells.gif


Plant cells

http://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

Plant cells

= Plasmolysis

No cytolysis/cell wall keeps it from bursting


Vacuoles store water

VACUOLES store WATER

http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_vacuole.html

TURGOR PRESSURE

_______________________ =

Pressure of water molecules pushing

against cell wall


So what

SO WHAT?


So what1

SO WHAT?

Bath water is

HYPOTONIC

compared to you

Sitting in the bathtub causes your fingers and toes to wrinkle up when water enters your skin cells by osmosis


Kinds of passive transport1

Kinds of Passive Transport

__________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

  • Diffusion

  • Osmosis

  • Facilitated Diffusion

  • Ion Channels


Facilitated diffusion carrier proteins help diffusion go faster

Facilitated DiffusionCarrier proteins help diffusion go faster


Facilitated diffusion

FACILITATED DIFFUSION

NO energy required

  • Passive = ____________________

  • Moves from ________________________

  • _____________________ bind molecule, change shape, and release it on other side of membrane

    (Carrier proteins are _______________ proteins)

  • Molecules that move this way in cells:

    _______________________

HIGH  LOW

Carrier Proteins

Integral

GLUCOSE


Facilitated diffusion1

Facilitated Diffusion

Animation from: http://bio.winona.edu/berg/ANIMTNS/facdifan.gif


Kinds of passive transport2

Kinds of Passive Transport

__________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

  • Diffusion

  • Osmosis

  • Facilitated Diffusion

  • Ion Channels


Ion channel

ION CHANNEL


Ion channels

ION CHANNELS

PASSIVE

HIGH  LOW

  • _____________transport (no energy required)

  • Molecules move from ___________________

  • Small passageways for _______ to get through membrane

  • Each ion has own kind of passageway

  • Examples in cells: Na+, Cl- , Ca + + , K +

IONS


Ion channels1

ION CHANNELS

Some channels always open

Some channels have “gates”

that open or close

in response to signals

  • SIGNALS:

    • stretching of cell membrane

    • electrical signals

    • chemicals

Animation from: http://www2.uic.edu/~myilma1/ionchannel.gif


Transporting molecules

Kidspiration by: Riedell


Kinds of active transport

Kinds of Active Transport

  • Sodium-Potassium Pump

________________________________________

___________________________________

____________________________________

  • Endocytosis

  • Exocytosis


Sodium potassium pump

SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP

ATP

ACTIVE

  • ___________ transport (requires energy from ______)

  • Special just for Na+and K +ions

  • Uses integral ___________________ to move molecules

  • Examples in nerve cells: Na+is pumped out of cells at same time K +is taken into cells

Carrier Proteins


Na and k pump

Na+and K + PUMP

Animation from: http://www.lionden.com/cell_animations.htm


Endocytosis takes substances into cell

ENDOCYTOSISTakes substances into cell

  • _____________transport (requires energy from ATP)

  • Uses small membrane sacs to carry substances

    ______________

ACTIVE

= VESICLES

http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/cell.html


2 kinds of endocytosis takes substances into cell

2 KINDS of ENDOCYTOSISTakes substances into cell

If taking in:

fluid, molecules = ____________________

large particles or whole cells = __________________

  • Examples in cells:

    • one celled organisms eat this way

    • white blood cells get rid of bacteria this way

PINOCYTOSIS

PHAGOCYTOSIS


Endocytosis

ENDOCYTOSIS

Animation from: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/cell-movement.html

http://www.accs.net/users/kriel/chapter%20nine/


Phagocytosis

PHAGOCYTOSIS

White blood cell destroying germs


Exocytosis substances released outside of cell

EXOCYTOSISSubstances released outside of cell

  • __________ transport (requires energy)

  • Substances move in____________

  • Examples in cells:

    • Golgi release packaged proteins

ACTIVE

VESICLES


Exocytosis

Exocytosis

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBooktransp.html


Golgi bodies use exocytosis

GOLGI BODIES USE EXOCYTOSIS

Animation from: http://www.franklincollege.edu/bioweb/A&Pfiles/week04.html


Endocytosis exocytosis

Endocytosis & Exocytosis

http://grossmont.gcccd.cc.ca.us/cmilgrim/Bio120/Outline/Outline2.gif/TransportMedia/EndoExocytosisMovie.htm


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