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Transporting Molecules. Diffusion. http://lhs.lps.org/staff/sputnam/Biology/U3Cell/diffusion_1.png. Animatioin from: http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/diffusion-animated.gif. Molecules move from “where there’s A LOT” to “where there’s NOT”.

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Diffusion

http://lhs.lps.org/staff/sputnam/Biology/U3Cell/diffusion_1.png


Animatioin from: http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/diffusion-animated.gif

Molecules move

from “where there’s A LOT”

to “where there’s NOT”


Diffusion across a space
DIFFUSION across a space http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/diffusion-animated.gif

DIFFERENCE

Happens anytime there is a _____________ in concentration in one place compared to another

(________________________)

= Concentration gradient


Diffusion across a space1
DIFFUSION across a space http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/diffusion-animated.gif

Higher

  • Molecules move automatically from an area of _______ concentration to an area of ________ concentration

  • EX: _____________________

    _____________________

Lower

Perfume, Koolaid, popcorn,

BBQ, Bad smell in room

http://leighhouse.typepad.com/blog/images/kool_aid.jpg

http://www.swapmeetdave.com/Humor/Farts.htm


Molecules need to move across membranes in cells
Molecules need to move across membranes in cells http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/diffusion-animated.gif

Image modiified from: http://www.accessexcellence.org/AB/GG/importProt.html


If there is a difference in concentration on two sides of a membrane…Diffusion can happen ACROSS A MEMBRANE too!

…as long as membrane will let molecule through



Image modified from: http://www.medaille.edu/vmacer/120_graphic_05oxygen.gif

EXAMPLE:

Oxygen molecules

move automatically

from lungs

into blood

DIFFUSION moves them from HIGHER (lungs) concentration to LOWER concentration (blood)


What if cell needs to move large or polar molecules
What if cell needs to http://www.medaille.edu/vmacer/120_graphic_05oxygen.gifmove large or polar molecules?

EX:

Glucose

Amino acids


What if cell needs to move a molecule against the concentration gradient
What if cell needs to move a molecule AGAINST the CONCENTRATION GRADIENT?

Example :

(LOW HIGH)

Glucose into mitochondria

Image from: http://www.biologyclass.net/mitochondria.jpg


What if cell needs to move molecules really fast can t wait for it to diffuse
What if cell needs to move molecules really FAST? CONCENTRATION GRADIENT?(can’t wait for it to diffuse)

Example in cells:

Movement of Na + & K+

ions sends nerve signals

http://www.steve.gb.com/images/science/neuron.png


Ways molecules move across membranes
WAYS MOLECULES MOVE ACROSS MEMBRANES CONCENTRATION GRADIENT?

  • PASSIVE TRANSPORT

    Does NOT require energy

  • ACTIVE TRANSPORT

Requires energy


Kidspiration by: Riedell CONCENTRATION GRADIENT?


Kinds of passive transport
Kinds of Passive Transport CONCENTRATION GRADIENT?

__________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

  • Diffusion

  • Osmosis

  • Facilitated Diffusion

  • Ion Channels


Diffusion across a membrane
DIFFUSION across a membrane CONCENTRATION GRADIENT?

  • Moves from:

    HIGHER concentration LOWER

Any kind of molecule that

can pass through the

membrane can do this.

EX: ______________

______________

OXYGEN

CARBON DIOXIDE

http://www.lionden.com/cell_animations.htm


Osmosis
OSMOSIS CONCENTRATION GRADIENT?

  • MOVES WATER

    MOLECULES

  • Across a SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE

  • Moves from HIGHER  LOWER

http://www.Isbu.ac.uk/water/molecule.html


What if there is a difference in concentration but solute molecules can t move across a membrane
What if there is a difference in concentration but solute molecules can’t move across a membrane?

WATER will move

until concentration

reaches equilibrium


Osmosis1 molecules can’t move across a membrane?

http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb6/labs/a_osmosis.gif


Osmosis1
OSMOSIS molecules can’t move across a membrane?

Osmosis4

HYPERTONIC: Concentration outside cell is ____________________ inside cell

More water leaves cell than enters so cell ____________

GREATER THAN

shrinks


Osmosis2
OSMOSIS molecules can’t move across a membrane?

Osmosis3

HYPOTONIC:Concentration outside cell is ________________ inside the cellMore water enters than leaves cell so cellwill ___________________

LESS THAN

Swell bigger


Osmosis3
OSMOSIS molecules can’t move across a membrane?

ISOTONIC:

Concentration outside cell ____________

concentration inside cell

Water entering = water leavingso cell _____________________

EQUALS

STAYS THE SAME SIZE


Animal cells
Animal cells molecules can’t move across a membrane?

= crenation

= cytolysis

http://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/bloodcells.gif


Plant cells

http://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gifhttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

Plant cells

= Plasmolysis

No cytolysis/cell wall keeps it from bursting


Vacuoles store water
VACUOLES store WATERhttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_vacuole.html

TURGOR PRESSURE

_______________________ =

Pressure of water molecules pushing

against cell wall


So what
SO WHAT?http://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif


So what1
SO WHAT?http://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

Bath water is

HYPOTONIC

compared to you

Sitting in the bathtub causes your fingers and toes to wrinkle up when water enters your skin cells by osmosis


Kinds of passive transport1
Kinds of Passive Transporthttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

__________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

  • Diffusion

  • Osmosis

  • Facilitated Diffusion

  • Ion Channels


Facilitated diffusion carrier proteins help diffusion go faster
Facilitated Diffusionhttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gifCarrier proteins help diffusion go faster


Facilitated diffusion
FACILITATED DIFFUSIONhttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

NO energy required

  • Passive = ____________________

  • Moves from ________________________

  • _____________________ bind molecule, change shape, and release it on other side of membrane

    (Carrier proteins are _______________ proteins)

  • Molecules that move this way in cells:

    _______________________

HIGH  LOW

Carrier Proteins

Integral

GLUCOSE


Facilitated diffusion1
Facilitated Diffusionhttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

Animation from: http://bio.winona.edu/berg/ANIMTNS/facdifan.gif


Kinds of passive transport2
Kinds of Passive Transporthttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

__________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

  • Diffusion

  • Osmosis

  • Facilitated Diffusion

  • Ion Channels


Ion channel
ION CHANNELhttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif


Ion channels
ION CHANNELShttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

PASSIVE

HIGH  LOW

  • _____________transport (no energy required)

  • Molecules move from ___________________

  • Small passageways for _______ to get through membrane

  • Each ion has own kind of passageway

  • Examples in cells: Na+, Cl- , Ca + + , K +

IONS


Ion channels1
ION CHANNELShttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

Some channels always open

Some channels have “gates”

that open or close

in response to signals

  • SIGNALS:

    • stretching of cell membrane

    • electrical signals

    • chemicals

Animation from: http://www2.uic.edu/~myilma1/ionchannel.gif


Kidspiration by: Riedellhttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif


Kinds of active transport
Kinds of Active Transporthttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

  • Sodium-Potassium Pump

________________________________________

___________________________________

____________________________________

  • Endocytosis

  • Exocytosis


Sodium potassium pump
SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMPhttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

ATP

ACTIVE

  • ___________ transport (requires energy from ______)

  • Special just for Na+and K +ions

  • Uses integral ___________________ to move molecules

  • Examples in nerve cells: Na+is pumped out of cells at same time K +is taken into cells

Carrier Proteins


Na and k pump
Nahttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif+and K + PUMP

Animation from: http://www.lionden.com/cell_animations.htm


Endocytosis takes substances into cell
ENDOCYTOSIShttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gifTakes substances into cell

  • _____________transport (requires energy from ATP)

  • Uses small membrane sacs to carry substances

    ______________

ACTIVE

= VESICLES

http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/cell.html


2 kinds of endocytosis takes substances into cell
2 KINDS of ENDOCYTOSIShttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gifTakes substances into cell

If taking in:

fluid, molecules = ____________________

large particles or whole cells = __________________

  • Examples in cells:

    • one celled organisms eat this way

    • white blood cells get rid of bacteria this way

PINOCYTOSIS

PHAGOCYTOSIS


Endocytosis
ENDOCYTOSIShttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

Animation from: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/cell-movement.html

http://www.accs.net/users/kriel/chapter%20nine/


Phagocytosis
PHAGOCYTOSIShttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

White blood cell destroying germs


Exocytosis substances released outside of cell
EXOCYTOSIShttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gifSubstances released outside of cell

  • __________ transport (requires energy)

  • Substances move in____________

  • Examples in cells:

    • Golgi release packaged proteins

ACTIVE

VESICLES


Exocytosis
Exocytosishttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBooktransp.html


Golgi bodies use exocytosis
GOLGI BODIES USE EXOCYTOSIShttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

Animation from: http://www.franklincollege.edu/bioweb/A&Pfiles/week04.html


Endocytosis exocytosis
Endocytosis & Exocytosishttp://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gif

http://grossmont.gcccd.cc.ca.us/cmilgrim/Bio120/Outline/Outline2.gif/TransportMedia/EndoExocytosisMovie.htm


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