Internet Agents. Web search Agents Information filtering agents Off-line delivery agents Notification agents Service agents Web site agents Mobile agents. Information Search. Ways to Find Information Browsing: Following hyper-links that seem of interest
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Some solutions to scalability issues:
*Vector space models, where a document is represented as a vector of attributes
*Tree structure, which represents a hierarchical view of a document
Figure 3.4 Filtering based on word usage
Words usage frequency
Chen, Sycara, “WebMate: A Personal Agent for Browsing and Searching”,
Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Autonomous Agents, Minneapolis, MN, May 1998
¹Significance is measured by mutual information (MI):
Expectation: EX = p + (1 -p) c
Chalasani, Jha, Shehory, Sycara, “Query Restart Strategies for Web Agents”,Proceedings of Autonomous Agents 98, Minneapolis, MN, May 1998
Strategy: restart just after time 1, if not done by then.
Let Xi = completion time of i'th query, i = 1,2.
X1, X2 are independent, identically distributed.
New completion time is Y:
EY = p + (1 - p)(1 + E X2) (X1, X2 indep.)
= 1 + p (1 - p) + (1 - p)c
If (and only if) c > 1 + 1 / p, EY < X1 !
1 if X1 = 1,
1 + X2 if X1 = c.
Number of Restarts k
Off-line Delivery of Agents Attributes
Environment Internet, news feeds
Task skills Information
Knowledge Web, news, finance, sports, weather
Communication skills HTTP, Meta tags, Desktop OS
Information filtering agents that deliver personalized information without the need for a direct Internet connection
A notification agent is one that notifies a user of significant events, i.e. a change in the state of information, e.g.
A collaborative filtering system makes recommendations based on the preferences of similar users.
People: Yenta, Referral Web
Products: Firefly, Tunes, Syskill & Webert
Readings: Wisewire, Phoaks
rate match recommend
purchase match recommend
Priming the Pump: Lifestyle Finder uses demographic data to assign users to market research categories
Over the Shoulder: Letizia uses observed browsing behavior & heuristics to recommend links
Incentives & Startup
Julia is a chatterbot that tries to convince users of its humanlike behavior:
Possible applications of chatterbots:
Business applications of intranets:
·Separate notification for each user interest, cluttering mailbox
·Do not incorporate user model for tracking user’s actions upon information delivery
·Recommend an agent for each new user interest topic
·Modify an existing agent, based on user’s use of agent recommended information (e.g. specialize an information agent)
·Remove an agent that the user does not use
·Temporally activate an agent based on user interest and disinterest in the agent’s recommendation
The software runs over a network and enables a team to work together and share information. It assists groups in:
It could do some simple tasks:
·Save and re-execute shareable queries that search groupware data bases
·Perform a script under pre-specified conditions
·Perform a script according to pre-specified schedule
·Agent name with optional comment
·When the agent should run:
*if new mail has arrived
*if documents have been created, modified, deleted
*at scheduled times, e.g. hourly, daily etc
The goal is to use agents to automate workflow in business applications
Differences between traditional workflow and agent-based workflow
·Traditional workflow is centralized; agents offere a distributed infrastructure
·Traditional workflow works only in structured environments; agents could manage workflow during execution
·Traditional workflow pre-specifies paths to take for
exception handling: agents can negotiate new tasks and
Agents that provide Enterprise-based support
·Run scheduled database analyses in the background
·Exception reporting for operations management
·Notify of information changes in a user-specified database object
. . .
Exception reporting alerts
·Time or event triggered report execution
·Workflow actions triggered by reports
·Incorporation of learning capability into the Database agents
·Incorporation of learning into the OLAP server