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Group Members: ANG RUEY ZHOU PUVANINTHIRAN A/L KESAVAN CHUA HOOI KANG FARHAN NAZMI BIN YUSOF MOHD RIDZWAN BIN MOHD YUSAK DING TAI CHEAN . Abstract. This presentation contains the following contents The definition of transformational leadership and transactional leadership.

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Group Members:

ANG RUEY ZHOU

PUVANINTHIRAN A/L KESAVAN

CHUA HOOI KANG

FARHAN NAZMI BIN YUSOF

MOHD RIDZWAN BIN MOHD YUSAK

DING TAI CHEAN


Abstract
Abstract

  • This presentation contains the following contents

    • The definition of transformational leadership and transactional leadership.

    • The behaviors of transformational leadership and transaction leadership had also included in this presentation

    • Finally, several research methods that used to study on transformational leadership also had included in the last part of the presentation. The research methods included laboratory experiments, field experiments, survey research, Descriptive and comparative studies, and Intensive Case Studies.


Transformational leadership

Vs

Burns (1978)

Transformational Leadership



Bass (1985), based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.transformational leader motivates followers by:1)making them more aware of the importance of task outcome2) inducing them to transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the organization or team3) activating their higher-order needsFollowers feel trust, admiration, loyalty and respect toward the leader, they are motivated to do more than expected.

  • Transactional leadership involves an exchange process that may results in follower compliance with leader requests but is not likely to generate enthusiasm and commitment.


Transformational behaviors
Transformational Behaviors based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.


Transactional behaviors
Transactional Behaviors based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.


New versions of theory also include based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.laissez-faire leadership. - show passive indifference about the task and subordinates (e.g. ignoring problems, ignoring subordinate needs)- absence of effective leadership


Influence processes

Influence Processes based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.

Involves Internalization – e.g. Inspirational vision

Increase Intrinsic Motivation

Involves Personal Identification

Transformational Behaviors – e.g. Inspirational

Motivation & Individualized Consideration

Intellectual Stimulation


Facilitating conditions
Facilitating Conditions based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.

  • Does not specify any condition irrelevant or ineffective.

  • Some aspects of transformational leadership are relevant but NOT goes to universal relevance.

  • Situational variables.

  • More important in dynamic & unstable environment.

  • Traits and values of followers


Primary types of research on the theories

Primary Types of Research on the Theories based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.


Survey research
Survey Research based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.

  • Used more often for research on transformational and charismatic leadership.

  • Developed several different questionnaires.

  • Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ)

    - Used for research on transformational leadership.

    - Measure the leadership effectiveness based on seven factors related to transformational leadership.


Cont based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.…

Meta-analysis

  • Statistical technique by combining the findings from independent studies.

  • Lowe, Kroek, Sivasubramaniam (1996) conducted meta-analysis by combining 39 studies using MLQ.

  • To examine the general relationship of transformational and transactional leadership and to measure the leadership effectiveness.

  • Transformational leadership was significantly related to some measures of leadership effectiveness.


Laboratory experiments
Laboratory Experiments based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.

  • Kirkpatrick and Locke (1996)

  • Investigate the separate effects of three leadership behavior

    • Visioning

    • Communicating

    • Clarifying


Field experiments
Field Experiments based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.

  • Barling, Weber and Kelloway(1996)

    • Conducted in a bank.

      • One group trained to use more intellectual stimulation and individualized cosideration.

      • The results :

        • High organizational commitment.

        • Personel loan sales by employees is more better.


Cont… based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.

  • Dvir, Eden, Avolio and Shamir (1999)

    • Use transformational leadership in Israeli Defense Force (IDF).

      • Some of 54 participants were given special training.

      • The results :

        • The platoons performed better than others.


Descriptive and comparative studies
Descriptive and comparative studies based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.

  • Descript for identify as either charismatic or non-charismatic leaders

  • Source of behavior descriptive to researchers:

  • Interview

  • Biographical, article, and case study

  • Critical incidents


Identify characteristic by interview
Identify characteristic by interview based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.

  • Bennis & Nanus, 1985

  • Conger, 1989

  • Fior, Harris, & House, 1999

  • Howel & Higgins, 1990

  • Jacopsen & House, 2001

  • Kouzes & Posner, 1987

  • Levinson & Rosenthal, 1984

  • Peters & Austin, 1985

  • Shamir, 1995


Indentify characteristic by biographics article and case study
Indentify based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition. characteristic by biographics, article, and case study

  • Bligh, Kohles, & Meindl, 2004

  • Deluga, 1998

  • House, Spangler & Woycke, 1991

  • Mio et al, 2005

  • Mumford & Van Doorn, 2001

  • O’connor et al, 1995

  • Strangle & Mumford, 2002

  • Van Fleet & Yulk, 1986a

  • Westley & Mintzberg, 1989

  • Willner, 1984


Identify characteristic by critical incidents
Identify characteristic by critical incidents based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.

  • Bryman, Stephens, & Campo, 1996

  • Kirby, King, & Paradise, 1992

  • Lapidot, Kark, & Shamir, 2007

  • Yulk & Van Fleet, 1982


Example of descriptive and comparative studies
Example of descriptive and comparative studies based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.

  • House, Spangler, and Woycke ( 1991)

  • Ask several historians charismatic or non-charismatic each of 31 former presidents and at least 2 years of their firm term.

  • The motive pattern of his first inaugural address.

  • Ways to measure effectiveness of leadership by

    • Rate of president by historian

    • Analysis of biographical information

  • Result show president with a socialized power are more charismatic.

  • Charismatic president use direct action to solve problem.


Example of descriptive and comparative studies1
Example of descriptive and comparative studies based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.

  • Bennis and Nanus (1985)

  • Study leaders of dynamic and innovative leaders.

  • Collect data using interview and observation.

  • Their no large-than-life. Most leaders were ordinary in appearance, personality, and general behavior.

  • Similarity of leader that researcher identify all leader has vision of desirable and possible vision.

  • Commitment their vision by decision and behavior.


Intensive case studies
Intensive Case Studies based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.

  • Beyer & browing, 1999

  • Cha & Edmindson, 2006

  • Roberts, 1985

  • Roberts & Bradley, 1988

  • Trice & Beyer, 1986

  • Weed, 1993


Methods of collecting data
Methods of Collecting Data based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.


Briefing of the studies
Briefing of the Studies based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.


Briefing contd
Briefing contd. based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.


Conclusion
Conclusion based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.


Thank You based on legitimate authority and respect for rules and tradition.


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