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Preparing A Persuasive Presentation. Contents. Fundamentals of Persuasive Presentations Ethos – The Speaker Pathos – The Audience Logos – The Message Developing a Group Persuasive Presentation Presentation Checklist Presenting with Confidence . Fundamentals of Persuasive Presentations.

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Preparing APersuasive Presentation


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Contents

  • Fundamentals of Persuasive Presentations

  • Ethos – The Speaker

  • Pathos – The Audience

  • Logos – The Message

  • Developing a Group Persuasive Presentation

  • Presentation Checklist

  • Presenting with Confidence


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Fundamentals of Persuasive Presentations

  • Definition of Persuasive Presentation:

    • purpose of influencing the audience knowledge, beliefs, actions, or all three.

  • Aristotle: persuasive speakers consider speaker (ethos), audience (pathos), and argument or message (logos) qualities.

  • Ethos, pathos, and logos still important today.


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Fundamentals of Persuasive Presentations

  • The initial step to preparing a persuasive presentation is:

    Identify the Presentation Goal

    • What the audience should acquire or do

      • information

      • belief(s)

      • action(s)


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Taking Stock:

Speaking goal: respond to these questions:

  • What is the topic or issue?

  • What new information should be received?

  • What beliefs should be accepted?

  • What action(s) should be agreed to by audience?


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Fundamentals of Persuasive Presentations

  • Your speaking goal guide your persuasive presentation

    • Eliminate information not central to your speaking goal


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Ethos

  • Ethos: The image the speaker presented to the audience(Aristotle)

  • Theory says: Audiences are influenced by speaker

    • credibility

    • perceived intentions

    • likeability


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Speaker Credibility

Social Judgment Theory(Sharif) emphasizes the need for speakers to appear believable or credible to audience

  • more likely to be accepted

  • Credible speakers emphasize knowledge and experience and give information source


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    Self Analysis to Determine Credibility

    • To determine your knowledge about the topic or issue, list the types of knowledge included in the presentation

      • Interviews?

      • Documents?

      • Focus Groups?

      • Observations?

      • Other sources?


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    Self Analysis to Determine Credibility Cont.

    • To determine experience, list the nature and length of time spent on acquiring information

      • Visitations

      • “Hands on” or practical experience

      • Relevant educational experiences

      • Life Experiences

      • Other


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    Speaker Perceived Intention

    Attribution Theory:(Heider) audience draws conclusions about the speaker’s intentions

    • Audience wants to know why you advocate a certain belief or course of action


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    Taking Stock

    • To summarize your commitment to an advocated position, ask yourself how does action or belief:

    • Benefit audience?

    • Benefit others? If so, who? how?

      • Immediate benefits?

      • Long term benefits?


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    Speaker Likeability

    Balance Theory:(Heider) we try to reduce tension to restore balance

    • Positive feeling between two people, more likely the message will be received positively

    • Analyze and attend to audience to build liking

      • Invite questions


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    Respond to Audience Questions

    • Invite questions in a sincere, enthusiastic manner

    • Repeat or paraphrase question, maintain eye contact

    • Provide a complete, brief response to the entire audience

    • Close by reaffirming speaking goal

    • Pause briefly before recognizing next questioner

    • Example: Respond to Q&A


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    Taking StockPractice Responding to Questions

    • To gain confidence, practice when responding to questions asked by family, friends, teachers

    • With which parts do you feel confident?

      • Where do you need improvement?


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    Responding to QuestionsWhen No One Asks

    • Give audience time to think of questions

      • Count to ten.

    • Provide additional information

    • Ask the audience a question


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    Responding to QuestionsWhen You Don’t Know the Answer

    • Admit you don’t know

    • Make an education response

    • Ask for audience assistance

    • Turn the question back to the questioner

    • Offer to follow-up and get back later


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    Taking Stock

    • Notice how teachers, and public figures respond to questions

      • What do you observe that you would like to avoid?

      • What practice would you borrow?


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    The Proper Preparation and Format of Your notes

    • Enables access to information at a glance

      • Allowing concentration on audience

      • When necessary,make adjustments to content or organization


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    The Proper Presentation and Format of Your notes

    Tips

    • Use note cards or one 81/2 X 11 sheet

    • Write on one side only

    • Except for quotations, confine notes to key words and phrases—no complete sentences

    • Leave white space for key words and phrases

    • Number notecards

    • As you practice, reduce content


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    Managing Practice Sessions

    • “Practice makes perfect.”

      Tips

    • Practice “out loud”

    • End your speech as many times as you begin

    • Mark trouble spots on notes to rework

    • Practice in a mirror – maintain eye contact with yourself

    • Do not memorize your presentation


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    Taking Stock

    • Pencil practice times into your calendar

    • Practice in the speech-giving environment

    • Note gains and areas still needing work


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    Delivery Decisions

    • “Delivery”: ways you communicate with audience

    • Delivery includes:

    • Proxemics: use of space

    • Kinesics: eye contact, facial expression, gestures, and posture

    • Physical Appearance: attire and appearance Paralanguage: use of voice to give meaning


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    Delivery DecisionsProxemics: Managing Space

    • Position for eye contact, seeing visuals and to operate technical equipment

    • In smaller space, position allowing eye contact with greatest number

    • Adjust to build connections with listeners:

      • When discussing personal issues, move closer; with impersonal issues, move away.

    • Adjust with structure of presentation:

      • To establish a connection, move closer during your introduction and conclusion

        Example:Proxemics


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    Delivery DecisionsKinesics: Managing Your Gestures

    • Align speech and gestures

    • not “what” you say, but “how” you say it,

    • Consider eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, posture


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    Delivery DecisionsKinesics: Eye Contact

    Eye contact is important:

    • creates connection with audience

    • signals willingness to communicate

    • increases value of message

    • allows awareness of audience responses


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    Delivery DecisionsKinesics: Eye Contact Cont.

    In small spaces:

    • Make eye contact with everyone in room initially

    • After initial contact, maintain prolonged eye contact

    • Brief eye contact-- appear unsure of yourself Example: Eye Contact


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    Delivery DecisionsKinesics: Eye Contact Cont.

    In large spaces:

    • Initially maintain eye contact with small group, such as the front row

    • Maintain eye contact with specific groups relevant to content

    • Avoid gazing at a general area of audience


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    Delivery DecisionsKinesics: Facial Expression

    • Facial Expression is importance

      • audience listens speech and watches facial expression

    • Facial expression should be consistent with what being said

    • Example: Facial Expression


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    Taking Stock

    • Are your facial expression consistent with your message?

    • When experiencing emotions, notice your facial expression

    • As you speak, look at listeners’ faces

      • Are expressions appropriate?


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    Delivery DecisionsKinesics: Gestures

    • Gestures complement verbal messages: illustrate, emphasize, clarify, or even substitute for verbal messages

    • To use gestures meaningfully:

    • Use fewer gestures

    • Use larger gestures

    • Use slower gestures

    • Gesture towards the audience

    • Let gestures result naturally

    • Example: Gestures


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    Taking Stock

    • Aware of your gestures?

      • Video tape yourself speaking for 3-4 minutes

      • Watch your tape, focusing on gestures

      • Do they help or hinder?

      • Use guidelines of last slide to make gestures more effective


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    Delivery DecisionsKinesics: Posture

    • Posture is the first thing audience notices

    • Good posture cmes from constant practice.

    • Display “relaxed alertness”, not stiff or contrived.

    • Behind a lectern, stand straight and tall

    • Example: Posture


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    Taking Stock

    • Walk across a room, balancing a book on your head


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    Delivery DecisionsPhysical Appearance


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    Delivery DecisionsParalanguage

    • Paralanguage: power of the voice

    • Your voice:

      • Gives meaning to your words

      • Makes it easier to hear and understand message

      • Influences audience attitude toward you and ability to influence them.

      • Example: Paralanguage


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    Delivery DecisionsParalanguage

    • Guides for effective paralanguage:

      • Avoid nonverbal utterances such as “um”

      • Avoid random hesitations

      • Speak in a volume slightly louder than needed

      • Vary volume to create emotional dimension

      • Pronounce words

      • Talk slightly faster than “normal”

      • Pause before/after important words or ideas


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    Taking Stock

    • Read aloud a food label

    • Incorporate paralanguage guides so meaning of the food label changes paralanguage


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    Pathos

    • Pathos: appealing to audience attitudes, beliefs, values, and emotions

    • Identify these qualities of audience so they will be receptive and respond positively


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    Pathos

    • Two theories guide pathos:

      • Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger)

      • Balance Theory (Heider)


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    Pathos

    Cognitive Dissonance Theory: experience discord when beliefs are inconsistent with behaviors

    • Seek ways to account for inconsistencies to eliminate dissonance


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    Pathos

    Balance Theory: tensions between or within people are reduced through self persuasion or persuasion of other


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    Audience Analysis

    • Profile audience to identify important qualities to eliminate inconsistencies and connecting with audience

    • Audience members are similar and differ from each other


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    Audience Analysis: Similarities

    • Four events must occur to educate or persuading audience:

    • Attract attention

    • Encourage involvement

    • Allow time to process information

    • Establish relevance of topic/issue to audience


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    Audience Analysis: SimilaritiesAttract Attention

    • Emphasize importance of issue – to “tune in”

    • Appeal to audience emotions

      • Emotional appeals as important as thoughts in influencing opinions(Goleman)


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    Taking Stock

    Is the issue of importance to audience?

    • What emphasizes the importance of issue to audience?

    • When will you establish importance of issue?

    • How to appeal to your listeners’ emotions?

    • When will you appeal to your listeners’ emotions?


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    Audience Analysis: SimilaritiesDevelop Involvement

    • Attract attention, then confirm their involvement by:

      • Establishing common experience or concern with audience

      • In relation to issue, in what areas is there agreement?


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    Taking Stock

    • List common experience and opinions with audience members

    • Develop a list of quotes, experiences related to individuals in audience

    • Insert these references related to points in speech


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    Audience Analysis: SimilaritiesAllowing Time to Process Information

    Provide processing time by:

    • Keeping main points to minimum; don’t overload.

    • Provide opportunities for audience to actively participate


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    Taking Stock

    • Identify key points essential for audience to hear

      • Between two and five key points

      • List ways to paraphrase points: statistics, quotes, experiences, examples

    • How to involve your audience?

      • List methods: brief discussion, Q&A


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    Audience Analysis: SimilaritiesEstablish Topic Relevance to Audience

    • To ensure audience relevance:

    • Present information in ways that make sense to listeners

    • Demonstrate why the information is relevant


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    Taking Stock

    • How to make the most sense to listeners?

      • Which methods will “speak” to them?

        • Stories, quote from publications, experts, local leaders

    • Why is the information relevant to listeners?


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    Audience Analysis: SimilaritiesA Final Note

    • The “Taking Stock” activities were designed to encourage you to think of ways to integrate guidelines.

    • If you were unable to respond to all of the taking stock questions, do not despair. The second phase of audience analysis may help in identifying additional information about the audience to answer taking stock questions.


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    Audience Analysis: Ways Audience Members Differ

    • Five dimensions of audience difference:

      • Demographics

      • Motivations for attending presentation

      • Knowledge and interests

      • Attitudes, beliefs, values

      • Cultural composition

    • May vary on all of these dimensions

      • Focus your message on members you specifically want to influence


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    Audience Analysis: Differences Demographic Characteristics

    • Demographic:

      • Age

      • Sex

      • Occupation

      • Family description


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    Taking Stock

    Demographic of your audience important to plan presentation?

    • List known information about audience? What else do you need to know?

      • How or where will you find it?


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    Audience Analysis: DifferencesMotivation for Attending Your Presentation

    • Audiences may attend voluntary or be required to attend

      • knowing why your audience is in attendance, enables conclusions about attitudes, knowledge, and demographics that help in your planning


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    Audience Analysis: DifferencesMotivation for Attending: Voluntary

    • A voluntary audience is likely positively predisposed toward issue

      • Briefly recognize their positive attitude

    • Include a

      • brief summary of issue(s)

      • brief description of your credentials

      • remind them of benefits from attendance

    • Identify other areas of commonality


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    Taking Stock

    • Will majority of audience attend voluntarily?

      • Identify characteristics of audience

      • How to capitalize on these shared areas?

    • Any relevant audience differences?

      • How to use differences to your benefit?


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    Audience Analysis: DifferencesMotivation for Attending: Captive

    • Captive audience may have negative predisposition to issue

      • To reduce negativity, emphasize benefits to attendance

    • To orient

      • Give background information

      • Define key terms

      • Introduce yourself

      • Describe your involvement with issue

    • Look closely for and cultivate commonalities


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    Taking Stock

    • Will attendance be mandatory?

      • Identify important difference

      • What will you say to accommodate differences?

    • Any common ground within audience?

      • How to integrate the areas into presentation?


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    Audience Analysis: DifferencesKnowledge and Interests

    • Construct demographic profile and determine audience attendance motivation to conclude issue knowledge and interests

      • Identify areas they may not know

      • Decide what and how much information to persuade audience

      • Identify areas of interest relevant to speaking issue to generate common ground


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    Taking Stock

    • What don’t know about your speaking issue?

    • What information (e.g., background, definitions) is needed to persuade audience?

    • What interests establish common ground?


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    Audience Analysis: DifferencesAttitudes, Beliefs, and Values

    • Attitudes: positive/negative feelings about issue

    • Beliefs: sense of truthfulness of falseness regarding an issue

    • Values: principles or standards guiding decisions

    • Attitudes, beliefs, & values are interrelated


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    Audience Analysis: DifferencesAttitudes

    • To change attitudes, demonstrate flawed network of beliefs:

      • Introduce new information from respected, credible source

      • Demonstrate the error or flaw in current beliefs


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    Taking Stock

    • Based of research and interaction with audience, what are their attitudes on the issue?

      • How do you know?

      • Other relevant attitudes to consider?

      • What are these, why are they important?


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    Audience Analysis: DifferencesBeliefs

    • To change beliefs, build consistency with value system of audience:

      • Demonstrate the logical connection to the relevant belief


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    Taking Stock

    • Based on research and interaction with audience, what are relevant beliefs to issue?

      • How do you know?

      • Other relevant beliefs to consider?

      • What are these, why are they important?


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    Audience Analysis: DifferencesValues

    • Values are very difficult to change

      • Refer to values to change beliefs and attitudes

      • Emphasize values to justify perspective and find common ground


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    Taking Stock

    • Based on research and interaction with audience, what are relevant values to issue?

      • How do you know?

      • Other relevant values to consider?

      • What are these, why are they important?


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    Audience Analysis: DifferencesCultural Composition

    • Culture: body of values and norms that affect behaviors of large group (Lustig & Koester)

    • Audience may share a culture or be a mix

    • Audience may be same culture as you


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    Audience Analysis: DifferencesCultural Composition

    • To identify culture of audience (Gudykunst):

      • Seek information and observe actions that tell about norms of behavior of audience

      • Establish Empathy: Understanding and appreciate their perspective

      • Demonstrate Behavioral Flexibility: Build in ways showing respect for their culture


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    Taking Stock

    • What are the cultural dimensions of audience?

      • How to apply these dimensions to your presentation?


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    Developing Your Audience ProfileGrid

    Complete the cells of the grid for your audience


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    Interpreting Your Audience Profile

    • Which information in cells will assist reaching goal?

    • Are there empty cells?

      • Would the information needed be helpful?

      • How could you obtain it?

    • Use the grid as you continue your planning to achieve your goal


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    Logos

    • Logos refers to the line of argument in the speech (Aristotle).

    • Information arrangement must makes sense and lead to understand issue

    • Elaboration Likelihood Theory (Petty & Cacioppo) supports importance of Logos


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    Elaboration Likelihood Model

    • Audience of Objective Thinkers or Biased Thinkers require carefully developed arguments


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    Logos

    • To achieve logical arrangement of information:

      • Identify limited number of key points

      • Develop each key point

      • Arrange key points in logical order

      • Create an ear-catching introduction

      • Construct a memorable conclusion

      • Insert transitions to connect ideas


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    Identify a Limited Number of Key Points

    • Limit key points to two to five points

    • Be able to explain why key points are necessary to your goal

    • If no clear explanation, delete the key point


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    Taking Stock

    • Is each key point relevant to goal?

      • State relevance of each point

      • State the reason your audience needs to hear each point


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    Develop and Clarify each Key Point

    • Clarifying key points to allow information processing time

    • Use 2-3 pieces of information for each point

    • Use different kinds of information to increase chances of understanding or agree

    • Ways to develop and clarify are:

      • Statistics

      • Quotations or paraphrases

      • Examples

      • Analogies

      • Cause/effect reasoning

      • Inductive and deductive reasoning

      • Reasoning from sign

      • Visual Support


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    Develop and Clarify Each Key PointStatistics

    • Statistics: numerical representations of information

    • Give the source

      • Ex.: “According to …”

    • Converting statistics to a visual representation

      • E.g., bar graph, pie chart

    • Limit use to avoid information overload

    • Example: Statistics


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    Develop and Clarify Each Key PointQuotations and Paraphrasing

    • Quotation: exact words uttered, taken from a source

    • Paraphrase: conversion of main point of the quotation

    • Both require giving the source

      • If audience is likely to be unfamiliar with source, give credentials

        • Ex.: “Mary Smith, CEO of Smith Inc. stated:”…”

    • Example: Quotation


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    Develop and Clarify Each Key PointExamples

    • Examples: verbal illustrations to clarify concepts, events, statistics, or concepts

    • Help listeners understand how concept relates to them

    • May be factual or fabricated

      • Document factual examples

      • Label as fabricated

      • Example: Example


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    Develop and Clarify Each Key PointAnalogies

    • Analogy: comparison of two similar entities

    • Indicate the similarities if not obvious

    • Be prepared to show that differences are irrelevant

    • If differences are important, explain how analogy is relevant to goal

    • Example: Analogy


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    Develop and Clarify Each Key PointCause and Effect

    • Cause and effect (C&E) argument: describes two dependent occurrences, where without the cause, the effect would not occur

    • Demonstrate how C&E is relevant to goal

      • If effect is positive, advocate for the cause

      • If effect is negative, advocate for changes to eliminate cause

    • Show likelihood of C&E relationship pertaining to goal

    • Example: Cause / Effect


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    Develop and Clarify Each Key PointDeductive and Inductive Reasoning

    • Deductive reasoning: generalization applied to a specific circumstance to validate circumstance

    • Inductive reasoning: specific circumstances that can be summarized with a generalization

    • When using either:

      • Document as many specific instances or generalization as possible

      • Use “enough” specific instances to enhance audience acceptance of conclusion

      • Be prepared to demonstrate interrelationships of specific instances and generalization

    • Examples: DeductiveInductive Reasoning


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    Develop and Clarify Each Key PointReasoning by Sign

    • Signs: indicators predicting but not causing event

    • Give signs and ensuing events relevant to goal

    • With well known instances where signs did not predict event, be able to explain circumstance

    • Provide documentation of strength of signs

    • Example: Sign


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    Develop and Clarify Each Key PointVisual Support

    • Visual support includes power point or poster presentations, clips from DVDs, demonstrations, or other visuals

      • Captures audience attention, facilitates comprehension, enhances retention

      • Place one idea on a visual leaving “white” space

      • Title each visual

      • For every two-three similar visuals, insert a visual with a different format

      • Use uniform font sizes within parts with a limit of 2-3 fonts on a visual

      • Eliminate unnecessary visuals

    • Example: Visual Aid


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    Taking Stock

    • List each key point

    • List types of material to clarify points

    • Try to avoid same types of support for main point


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    LogosArrange Key Points in a Logical Order

    • Place key points arranged in a logical order along with 2-3 pieces of information

    • Organizational frameworks to choose from, depending on the interest, attitude, and knowledge of audience:

      • Monroe’s Motivated Sequence

      • One-Sided Organizational Framework

      • Agree/Disagree Framework

      • Two-Sided Refutational Framework

      • Scientific Problem Solving

      • Elimination of Alternatives


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    Arrange Key Points in Logical OrderMonroe’s Motivated Sequence

    • Monroe’s Motivated Sequence, for a variety of audiences:

      • Apathetic, uninformed, no opinion regarding goal

      • Apathetic, informed, views in opposition to goal

      • Strongly involved, informed, views in opposition to goal

    • Contains five main parts for informing, involving, and demonstrating the benefits of goal


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    Monroe’s Motivated Sequence

    • Attention Step: Introduces speech, focuses audience attention (Introduction)

    • Problem/Need Step: Informs about problem or circumstance to be resolved

    • Solution/Satisfaction Step: Provide solution to problem

    • Visualization/Benefit Step: Lists benefits realized, to whom from accepting solution

    • Action Step: Lists specific actions to actualize solution (Conclusion)

    • Example: Illustrates Motivated Sequence


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    Arrange Key Points in Logical OrderOne-Sided Organizational Framework

    • One sided organizational framework useful for audiences:

      • Interested

      • knowledgeable about the issue(s)

      • No opinion formed

    • Speaker directs audience to a specific view


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    Arrange Key Points in Logical OrderOne-Sided Organizational Framework Cont.

    • Present a list of reasons to support viewpoint

    • List limited to five strongest or most important reasons

    • Example: One-Sided Organization


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    Arrange Key Points in Logical OrderAgree/Disagree Pattern

    • Agree/Disagree pattern when audience:

      • Has negative attitude about issue

      • Is well-informed

      • Disagrees with speaker viewpoint or opposed to speaker

    • First, discuss agreed upon points

      • Audience views the speaker as “one of us”


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    Agree/Disagree Pattern

    • Agree: Acknowledge an agreed upon dimension

    • Speaker should use “we” and mention common experiences

    • Disagree: Introduce the goal

    • Develop speaking goal but refer to common ground when possible

    • Example: Agree/Disagree


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    Arrange Key Points in Logical OrderTwo-Sided Refutational Framework

    • Two-sided refutational framework when audience:

      • is well-informed about issue

      • disagrees with speaker’s viewpoint

      • actively supports their own views

    • Acknowledge views of audience and identify flaws in views

    • Refute up to five most important points Example: 2- Sided Refutation


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    Arrange Key Points in Logical OrderScientific Problem Solving

    • Scientific problem solving when audience:

      • is well-informed about issue

      • disagrees with speaker’s viewpoint

      • actively supports their own views

    • And when the speaker:

      • is able to present a criteria for “best” solution

      • has information unknown by audience

    • Example: Scientific Problem Solving


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    Scientific Problem Solving

    • Inform the audience a problem exists (develops common ground) (Introduction)

    • Identify causes and effects of problem

    • Present how to resolve problem

    • List solutions advocated by audience

    • Select the solution that best matches the problem (Conclusion)


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    Arrange Key Points in Logical OrderElimination ofAlternatives(also called “Method of Residues”)

    • Elimination of alternatives when audience:

      • is well-informed about issue

      • disagrees with viewpoint

      • actively supports their own views

      • disagrees with other member’s views

    • Acknowledge audience viewpoint and eliminate all but advocated viewpoint


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    Elimination of Alternatives(Method of Residues)

    • If more than five strong audience views, group similar views so no more than five key points

    • For each key point:Explain why point is not acceptable solution

    • Example: Elimination of Alternatives


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    Taking Stock

    • Review audience profile

    • In relation to your speaking goal

      • How informed is audience about issue?

      • What is their attitude about you/issue?

      • How commited to their viewpoints?

    • Based on these questions, which organizational framework is best?

    • After choosing framework, fit key points and support into framework


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    LogosCreate an Ear-Catching Introduction

    • The introduction:

      • Capture audience interest

      • Introduces topic and dimensions

      • Establishes relevance of topic to audience

      • Discloses speaker’s credentials


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    Create an Ear-Catching IntroductionElements of the Introduction

    • Introduction includes:

      • Attention grabber –capturing audience interest

      • Statement of speaking goal

      • Brief preview of key points

      • Consider if context requires:

        • Disclose your credentials

        • Establish relevance of topic to audience


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    Create an Ear-Catching IntroductionAttention Grabber

    • Attention grabber motivates audience to listen

    • Some commonly used attention grabbers are:

      • Makes direct reference to topic

      • Personal greeting

      • A question

      • A startling statement

      • A story, joke, or example; be very cautious about telling jokes

    • Example: Attention Grabber


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    Create an Ear-Catching IntroductionSpeaking Goal

    • State goal clearly with conviction

    • Example: Speaking Goal


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    Create an Ear-Catching IntroductionPreview of Key Points

    • Previewing key points helps audience anticipate discussion

    • Abbreviate key points so preview is one sentence

      • Ex.: “I will discuss _____, _____, and _____.

    • Example: Preview of Main Points


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    Create an Ear-Catching IntroductionDisclose Your Credentials

    • If unknown to audience, state nature of credentials

    • In known, beneficial to remind them

    • Example: Credential(1) Credential(2)


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    Taking Stock

    • Consult Ethos section in developing of expertise profile


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    Create an Ear-Catching IntroductionEstablish Relevance of Topic to the Audience

    • Establishing relevance:

      • Inform audience how information relates and is important to them

      • List benefits from considering information

    • Example: Relevance


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    Create an Ear-Catching IntroductionEstablish Relevance of Topic to the Audience

    • Establishing relevance not always necessary if issue is dire or undesirable

    • Worthwhile to remind audience, briefly, of importance

      Taking Stock

    • Consult Logos section for tips on developing audience profile & develop connections with audience


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    Taking StockPlan Your Introduction

    • Complete planning sheet to develop an ear-catching introduction:

      • Attention Grabber

      • Credentials

      • Audience Relevance

      • Speaking Goal

      • Preview of Key Points

    • Practice intro to fit components together


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    LogosConstruct a Memorable Conclusion

    • The purpose of the conclusion is:

      • Speaker’s last opportunity to advocate viewpoint/action

      • Audience’s last chance to hear information needed to guide decisions/actions

      • End speech on strong note

    • Example: Conclusion


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    LogosConstruct a Memorable Conclusion

    • Conclusion includes:

      • Restatement of what audience should remember

      • Device to establish memorable closure


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    Create a Memorable ConclusionRepetition or Restatement

    • What audience should remember:

      • The speaking goal

      • One of the major points

      • All of the major points

      • A summary of all of the above


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    Create a Memorable ConclusionEstablish Closure

    • Methods to attract audience used for closure create a cohesive message

    • Other means to establish closure:

      • Expression of appreciation

      • Personal comment to issue

      • A question posed as challenge

      • Startling statement

      • Reference to attention grabber

    • Example: Closure


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    Taking StockPlan Your Conclusion

    • Complete the worksheet:

      • Points for audience to remember?

      • How to establish closure?


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    LogosInsert Transitions to Connect and Show Relationships

    • Transitions show relationships of ideas from point to point

    • Transitions:

      • Words

      • Phrases

      • Sentences

    • Longer parts need a longer transition


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    Insert Transitions to Show RelationshipsWord Transitions

    • Word transitions

      • “First, I will show you…”

      • also, and, again, finally, furthermore, therefore, next

    • Example: Word Transition


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    Insert Transitions to Show RelationshipsPhrase Transitions

    • Phrase transitions within key point

      • “In addition, a second concern is…”

      • For example, in addition, in other words, on the one hand/on the other hand, more importantly

    • Example: Phrase Transition


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    Insert Transitions to Show Relationships Sentence Transitions

    • Sentence transitions to create cohesion between key points

      • “We have just discussed ______. Now I would like to speak to you about ____.”

    • Example: Sentence Transition


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    Taking StockPlanning Transitions

    • Develop a key word outline

    • Place an “X” where transition will show relationships of ideas

    • Next to “X”, indicate a “W” a “P” or a “S” to insert word, phrase, or sentence transition


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    Tips for Developing a Group/Team Presentation

    • Preparation: Assign responsibilities for researching specific information

    • Division of Duties: Each member is assigned main part of presentation

    • Transitions: Each speaker provides a transition to next speaker

    • Managing Q & A: One person fields audience questions and delegates to members

    • Etiquette: When colleague speaks, keep eyes on him/her

    • Example: Group Responsibility for Question


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    Presentation Check List

    A. Planning the presentation

    ___ State the speaking goal

    ___ Develop a speaker profile

    ___ Conduct an audience analysis

    B. Organizing the presentation

    ___ Identify key points

    ___ Support key points with 2-3 pieces of information

    ___ Arrange key points in logical organizational framework

    ___ Create an ear-catching introduction

    ___ Construct a memorable conclusion

    ___ Insert transitions

    C. Delivering the presentation

    ___ Prepare visual support

    ___ Practice

    ___ Reduce notes during practice


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    Presenting with ConfidenceBefore the Presentation

    ___ Practice

    ___ Practice in front of mirror

    ___ Practice before supportive colleagues

    ___ Practice with visual support

    ___ Practice in the environment the speech will be given

    ___ End each speech as many times as it is begun

    ___ Eliminate notes as confidence develops

    ___ Mark reminder comments legibly on notes

    ___ Time presentation


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    Presenting with ConfidenceThe Day of the Presentation

    __ Channel nervous energy through workout or physical

    activity

    ___ Eat carefully (some food but no heavy meals)

    ___ Choose appropriate, comfortable clothing

    ___ Check notes and other equipment

    ___ While waiting turn, take long, deep breaths


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    Presenting with ConfidenceDuring the Presentation

    __ Set glass of water nearby

    ___ Organize visual support

    ___ Check technology if using

    ___ Check order of notes

    ___ Make eye contact with listeners

    ___ Take deep breath

    ___ Begin talk


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    Presenting with ConfidenceAfter the Presentation

    __ Ask trusted colleagues for feedback

    ___ Make notes of strengths and areas to improve for

    next presentation

    ___ Consider motivation for audience questions


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